RISING TIDE UK CLIMATE ACTION NEWS SHEET 22ND FEBRUARY 2002 THIS ISSUE: PROTESTS CLOSE AMSTERDAM CARBON TRADING CONFERENCE RISING TIDE NORTH EAST UP AND RUNNING YORK RISING TIDE - CRITICAL MASS INTRODUCING LLANW’N CODI GWYNEDD AND MON RISING TIDE INTERNATIONAL RISING TIDE MEETING IN BARCELONA PEAT CAMPAIGN MORE FREAK WEATHER WELCOME TO THE 600TH SUBSCRIBER A note for newcomers- These news sheets are short (2 ish pages) and we won't "flood" you (ho ho)- we will issue them only when we have something to say and even then no more than one update per week (and maybe even less often). YOUR DETAILS WILL NEVER BE GIVEN TO ANYONE. PROTESTS CLOSE AMSTERDAM CARBON TRADING CONFERENCE On 19th February, 17 activists of the action group (ARK) Amsterdamse Radicale Klimaatactivisten stormed the opening of the Eye-for-Energy conference about emission trading in the Okura Hotel, Amsterdam. Activists wearing bright blue wigs danced into the room as BP's Head of Climate Change Mark Akhurst was speaking blowing horns and whistles and storming the stage from where they threw carbon credits to bewildered conference participants. The conference was delayed for two hours and thirteen people were arrested. Outside a solidarity group of about 60 people, joined by quite an impressive amount of press, did street theatre, played samba, distributed leaflets to by-passers and delegates. They played for four hours while rain, hail and freezing cold wind (the "climate") was attacking them. More details of the action, plus critiques explaining why Rising Tide opposes carbon trading can be found on www.risingtide.nl. RISING TIDE NORTH EAST UP AND RUNNING 'Rising Tide North East' was launched in Newcastle on the 9th of February, with local bands, poetry, pizza and all kinds of shenanigans going on at the Cumberland Arms pub. People got together from Sunderland, Durham and even sunny Gateshead, and are now hatching plans for all kinds of Rising Tide busy-ness. The first event is a 'stop esso' demo this Saturday ( 23rd Feb ), a webpage and a local newsletter are also in the offing, and there are plans for doing a 'climate change' performance with local kids. Our biggest event will be with the Newcastle Community Green Festival on the 4th and 5th May: if your wanna get involved in any way then get in touch now! To contact Rising Tide North East write to anna.ashworth@ncl.ac.uk or call 0191 2603166 YORK RISING TIDE - CRITICAL MASS Sophie Cook writes: One of our main aims, in York, is to draw a direct connection between floods and climate change....so we weren’t too devastated when York flooded on the day of our Critical Mass bike protest! 50 people came, which was pretty good as it was a stormy day in February, we got soaked, but we kept happy and did mange to hand out a loads of flyer before it stared really chucking it down. Many people dressed up, and my inflatable shark stole the show! We put the cut-out Rising Tide fish (in the resources section of the website) under windscreens. I had some left in my pocket and just now passed two unattended BBC outside broadcast vans with fat cables trailing down to the flooded river. They are now the proud bearers of RT fish. So the moral of this story is... be an opportunist, always have a fish in your pocket! I suggest a 'you've been fished' competition in the newsletter - the person to send in the most ironic pic of a RT fish on a vehicle wins something. (OK Soph– Please send your fish photos to Rising Tide, 16B Cherwell St, Oxford OX1 1BG ) Contact Sophie on cookie2076@totalise.co.uk Pictures and press from the action: http://www.geocities.com/yorkrt/ NEW RT NETWORK FORMS IN NORTH WALES INTRODUCING LLANW’N CODI GWYNEDD AND MON RISING TIDE We are a mix of local people, students, long term residents and new folk. Many of us have previously been campaigning as Earth First! against the A55 Euroroute through Anglesey; the semi- successful anti-housing protest camp at Brewery Fields, Bangor and coalitions and actions against the Terrorism Act. We have made very strong links with most of the other North Wales groups and campaigns, including the very active Welsh Language and peace campaign groups, local wildlife groups, the farming community. Many of our protests against developments such as out- of- town supermarkets, roads, housing development etc, and our commitments to sustainable communities, jobs and healthy environments, all relate to climate change. So we’ve decided to concentrate on setting up a Rising Tide network in North Wales which will help provide a focus and a resource base for all our campaigning and hopefully attract new people. We are currently applying for grant money to set up an office where we can really coordinate, be effective, stay visible and have a permanent focus. We want to set up databases of contacts, information, etc- train up local people in skills such as public speaking and web design- do bilingual info packs for schools – run allotment campaigns- resource and support other climate- based campaigns- get loads more people involved and active- and generally save the world and be home in time for tea. Contact us on llanwncodi@hotmail.com INTERNATIONAL RISING TIDE MEETING IN BARCELONA Four people from Rising Tide UK attended the first international gathering of the network. held from the 1st to the 8th February in Barcelona (yes, in case you are wondering we ALL got there by bus and train!) Among those attending were people from inspiring grassroots climate campaigns in Germany, Portugal, Netherlands, Finland, Norway, Spain, Greece, Nepal, Morocco, and Papua New Guinea. We also heard news of campaigns in Australia, Korea, Japan, and the US. The people who have spent the last 18 months on international coordination want to move on and so coordination is currently in transition. We will seek funding through the European Voluntary Service for funding for a coordinator. Please contact us if you are interested in working outside the UK (most likely Germany) coordinating the international network. We spent a great deal of time discussing and amending the international political statement. The new version will be posted on the Rising Tide UK website next month along with a full report on the Barcelona meeting. ANNOUNCEMENT-PEAT CAMPAIGN There are currently 250 billion tonnes of carbon stored in peat bogs on this planet, far more than is stored as natural gas. Active peat bogs are among the most diverse ecosystems that exist in Britain. But these incredible pieces of nature are still being destroyed for gardeners and professional horticulture. Thorne and Hatfield Moors were once the biggest peat bogs in Western Europe, now they are being stripped so rapidly that soon, no sort of ecological regeneration will be possible. There has been a direct action campaign growing over the last year, and just before Easter, there will be an attempt to blockade the diggers for 4 days (march 25th-28th), as they try to ship out supplies to garden centres for the busy bank holiday weekend. If you want to know more, contact peat alert on 07787 782259 or look at the website www.peatalert.org.uk ****** MORE FREAK WEATHER Noam Bleicher writes to say “my brother living in Raleigh, North Carolina, reported 30 cm of snow three weeks ago and a 24 C warm spell this week. For reference, NC normally has mild winters - snow falls and summer temperatures are definitely not the norm for January!" Please keep sending us your freak weather stories WELCOME TO THE 600TH SUBSCRIBER Last week the number of subscribers to this news sheet broke the 600 barrier (and a further 200 people around the world also receive this news letter). Hoorah! PLEASE FORWARD THIS TO A FRIEND AND INVITE THEM TO JOIN THE LIST. To subscribe to this list send a blank e-mail to risingtide-subscribe@topica.com Please send us anything you’d like put up or anything for inclusion in this update to George at weathersave@netscapeonline.co.uk. The news sheet is a tight short format so if your info is too long we might put it up on the web page and just refer to it in the newsheet. More information on anything! Email: info@risingtide.org.uk Phone: 01865 241097 Address: 16b Cherwell St, Oxford OX1 1BG. Web site http://www.risingtide.org.uk END --------- 138249 Robert Fisk: Europe must stop parroting the American script in the Middle East (english) by The Independent 5:32pm Wed Feb 20 '02 (Modified on 11:35pm Wed Feb 20 '02) 'After Israel has vandalised 11m euros of property supplied by Europe, why shouldn't we play a role?' 21 February 2002 While President George Bush rabbits on about the "axis of evil" and his "crusade" against "terror", a real tragedy is about to interfere with his mythic struggle against America's enemies. It's about a place called Palestine. And a place called Israel. So idle, so lazy, so pro-Israeli has Washington's policy become towards the Middle East that the President still seems unaware that the real war in the region involves its own ally - a colonial Israel - and a nationalist struggle run by Israel's own surrogate Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat. President Bush really thinks he is conducting a crusade. True, he was warned not to use the expression - Muslims are not terribly keen on the 11th century Christian knights who slaughtered Muslims and Jews by the tens of thousands - but he used the word again just five days ago. Speaking of the Canadian soldiers who have rashly joined US troops in Kandahar, Mr Bush announced that "they stand with us in this incredibly important crusade to defend freedom". Crusade indeed. As Palestinians are learning from their Hizbollah compatriots in Lebanon how to resist an occupying force - how to obtain "freedom" - Mr Bush continues to give the Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon a green light to "strike against terror" while at the same time demanding democracy for all Muslim countries in the Middle East, especially Iran and Iraq. But not, of course, for allies like Saudi Arabia and Egypt. The ability of the Americans to re-write history and to blow-dry the Palestinian-Israeli conflict into clichés is a scandal. The occupied Palestinian territories have now become the "disputed" territories; Jewish colonies on Arab land have become "settlements" and now, according to the BBC and CNN, "neighbourhoods". Israeli death squads are now "elite forces" who carry out "targeted killings". In the same way, the American media have declared victory in Afghanistan. Another lie. Hamid Karzai's government controls only a few Kabul streets. Afghanistan is a place of anarchy and lawlessness, of rape and brigandage after America's war. One of Mr Karzai's own ministers is murdered at the Bagram air base in an inter-cabinet feud. The British Army, which controls the airport, is - so we are told - not responsible. And the Saudis allow the culprits to go free. American B- 52s are now bombing "enemy soldiers" - not enemies of the United States but warring tribesmen who happen to oppose America's choice of leader, Hamid Karzai. It's an old story. We British were fighting "warring tribes" in the 1920s. Now the Americans do the same. And in the meantime, we must ignore the Palestinian-Israeli war. The Palestinian Intifada uprising, provoked by Ariel Sharon's visit to the Al-Aqsa mosque, is a "strategic error", according to the State Department on Tuesday. An Israeli officer tells his colleagues, according to the Israeli daily newspaper Ha'aretz, that they must "study how the German Army operated in the Warsaw Ghetto". Needless to say the latter report is not published in the United States. The truth is that the Palestinians have learned from the Hizbollah in Lebanon. You don't have to submit to occupation. You can fight back. With home-made missiles, with crude mines on the roads, with suicide bombers. This is a cruel, ruthless war, the worst year of "terror" in Israel's recent history. But it is an anti-colonialist war, a struggle against Jewish settlements and I can well see why Professor Arie Eldar, a former Israeli army medical officer, should announce that "we must execute him [Mr Arafat] today". Yet still the US government parrots whatever Mr Sharon says. Mr Arafat must end "terrorism", his plot to import Iranian arms - always supposing it can be conclusively proved - a symbol of his plans to destroy Israel. Listening to the US State Department spokesman, you might think that the administration really has accepted the insane Sharon thesis that Mr Arafat is a part of "world terror". In fact, given the supine and cowardly American reporting of the Middle East conflict, you might wonder why the Pentagon wishes to create its absurd "Office of Strategic Influence (OSI)" to peddle truth and lies to the press. US journalists are so gutless - so quick to adopt the government line - that it is surely unnecessary to plunder the $10bn supplement to the Pentagon budget to sell this kind of trash. A few days ago, I participated in a live American radio show in which a former State Department official warned that Washington may have to cut its ties with Mr Arafat unless he "curbed terror" - he was, of course, faithfully following the Sharon line. I was supposed to intervene with a plea for Mr Arafat. In fact, I suggested that Washington should cut all its connections with Mr Arafat - because, given the total failure of US policy in the region, it was time the Europeans took over and acted as intermediaries. After the Israelis had vandalised more than €11m worth of Palestinian property supplied by the European Union, why shouldn't we play a role in the Middle East conflict? Apoplexy reigned. I was not speaking to cue. But why the hell do we Europeans have to speak according to the script? True, we have the occasional nutter - the Czech Prime Minister, for example, this week comparing Mr Arafat to Hitler - but in the world where Mr Bush tells us, like a Hollywood director, that 2002 will be a "war year", we have a right to speak out. The United States has a right to its own illusions. The latest, from "American intelligence" - the heroes who failed to learn of the plot to attack the World Trade Centre - is that Afghanistan is threatened by Iran which has sent hundreds of Arab and Afghan fighters to Mazar-i-Sharif to create mayhem. And of course, these diabolical forces were "trained by the Hizbollah in Lebanon". Needless to say, this rubbish is taken seriously in Washington and in Israel (from whence it came). But we do not have to accept this nonsense. The real battle exists between the Israelis and the Palestinians. Iraq is a side-show. If Washington wants to reverse the priorities, we Europeans can only pity them. But the condemnation of Mr Bush's policy by the French and German foreign ministers and by Nato's leadership is real enough. Let us have done with crusades and the "war on terror". Let's have some justice in the Middle East. For Israelis and Palestinians alike. news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east... ------------------Robert Fisk is married to an Arab (english) by Joe 6:54pm Wed Feb 20 '02 I just love reading Fisk's article. I think this guy gets on a high, when he bashes Israel. What he wants is Europe to do, is have the Arabs exterminate the Jews. Then Fisk will be happy. --------------Joe schmo (english) by Capt. Canuck 7:44pm Wed Feb 20 '02 Joe sounds like a typical American with his head up his ass. Fisk, meanwhile has been living out in the harsh light of the Middle East for 30 years, watching the horror unfold. He reports what he sees. ----------Whatever "side" the violence comes from Go Fisk (english) by get it done 11:35pm Wed Feb 20 '02 Robert Fisk is a sensible man. Hope there's more like him. ----------------- yorku.ca/faculty/academic/   idavies/personal/lyotard.htm Narrative, Knowledge and Art: On Lyotard's Jewishness 1. All at sea  There is an image that occurs in Lyotard's Driftworks, that of the sea, of the Ship or barque simultanously leaving several shores: Driftworks in the plural, for the question is not of leaving one shore, but several, simultaneously: what is at work is not one current, pushing and tugging, but different drives and tractions. Nor is just one individual embarking here, or even a collective of individuals, but rather, as in Bosch's ship, a collection of fools, each fool being an exaggerated part of the normal subject, libido cathected in such and such a sector of the body, blocked up in this or that configuration of desire, all these fragments placed next to each other....for an aimless voyage, a collection of fragments impossible to unify for it drifts with the Ship, its very drift giving the advantage of the strongest resonance now to one Trieb-fool, now to another, in accordance with the diversity of the times and sceneries wafted through. Not at all a dislocated body, since there has never been anything but pieces of the body and there will never be a body, this wandering collection being the very affirmation of the non-body. (Lyotard, 1984a: 10) Even though this is a middle-aged, poetic, Lyotard (1972) it catches the sense of his subsequent work and the imagery that flows through it. And in many ways it is a powerful image for the end of this century - mass migration, travelling cultures, the detritus of old cultures and civilizations, the segments of bodies in cyberspace, in Rwanda, in Bosnia, as boat people in Cambodia or off the coast of West Africa. It is, as he notes, Joyce's Ulysses and, as he might note now, Walcott's Omweros or Neruda's Pacific poems. But Lyotard's Sea is a casting off not in order to "return home, to the self, which will be the model of Hegelian dialectics and of bourgeois socialist thought and praxis in their entirety. Rather the intense stationary drift wherein the fragments clash in Joyce's Ulysses." (1984a: 10)  In order to find this point of chaotic stasis, and not to find the great White Whale, but Ishmael, but an Ishmael who represents the "unpresentable" (1984b: 80), Lyotard leads us through coves and headlands which are occupied by Kant, Hegel, Plato and Aristotle, Freud, Feyerabend, Marx, Descartes, Habermas, Adorno as well as the Nouveaux Philosophes. It is perhaps no accident that the Book for which he is best known, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, is based on lectures he gave to the Conseil des Universites of the government of Quebec, a body which surely confirms closely both to the image of many shores, and a rudderless ship, and also to Lyotard's major definition of the artist as formulating "rules of what will have been done." (1984b: 81) For if the notion of the postmodern is to have any meaningful locus, if the event is to be founded on "activating difference", then surely Quebec is as good ship to be on as anywhere. For the crucial thing about Quebec (and nowhere does Lyotard actually talk about it) is that it is defined by its future anteriority, the event is always a hiatus between what might have been and what might conceivably be. It was here that Pierre Trudeau sent in the Army in 1970 not to quash a rebellion or a riot, but to silence an "apprehended revolution." It is this space where the competing claims of Micmac Indians, assorted immigrants from Ireland, Haiti, Cote d'Ivoire, the Shtetl, Scotland, England, Acadians, as well as `Canadians', Americans and multinational corporations contend with the artistic practice of the Quebecois whose "political party ...inhabits the silence of the signifier, the silence of domination...[which] considers the surface of experience as appearance, mere symptom, and even if it decides not to take power, power is already taken by it to the extent that it repeats this device of appearance and effacement, of theater, of politics as a domaine. Even should `total resolution' be deferred endlessly, this party will be a tragic political party, it will be the negative dialectic..." (1984a: 108-9)  Needless to say, this mode of reasoning has many antecedents and Lyotard could locate himself in an antinomian tradition that goes at least as far back as the Sophists, and would take in the Gnostics, Kabbalists, Jansenists (including Pascal), William Blake, the Muggletonians and probably the Zen Buddhists did he care to actually so locate himself (which he does not). It is a noble tradition of resistance which carries in its tow a large number of writers, artists and musicians. In what way does Lyotard fit in?  Centrally, it is important to recognize that Lyotard's trope in developing his arguments is invariably the Artist, but in producing the Artist he leads us through three important fields - history, psychoanalysis and language, and his guides are, by and large, Kant, Freud and Adorno. This is not to say that they are systematic guides. As with all of his analyses, Lyotard's use of his sources is highly selective. The Kant that he draws on is primarily that of the Third Critique (though partly mediated through Emmanuel Levinas), the Freud that of Moses and Monotheism, The Interpretation of Dreams, and Leonardo, while his Adorno that of the concluding sections of Negative Dialectics. As foils to these, he draws in a large number of other writers (too numerous to discuss here) and across all is a concern with language games as the mechanism (or method) by which he develops his analysis. Unlike other French postmodern writers, Nietzsche only figures aphoristically, while his views on science seem to be influenced by Mandelbrot, Kuhn and Feyerabend. For a moment let us examine the major thrust of this collage. 2. Theory and Narration The grand narrative has lost its credibility. (1984b: 37) Lyotard's central target is the closure that metanarratives impose on knowledge. His earlier membership of the important Socialisme ou Barbarie group (which also included Cornelius Castoriadis) had already established an important critique of orthodox Marxism. His signal academic contribution during this period was a popular introduction to Phenomenolgy, published in 1954. He was involved in trade union activities in Algeria, and was active in the Paris upheavals of 1968. At this time his intellectual (and political) position was closer to that of Henri Lefebvre, while his philosophical analysis derived from his mentor Maurice Merleau-Ponty (of whose influence traces still remain). His break with Marxism occurred after 1968 (Driftworks is the direct product of that break). Thus the syndicalist libertarian took on a wider canvas, though still concerned with the theory and practice of action. It might be important to compare the Marxist with the post-Marxist Lyotard in order to develop the continuities/discontinuities of his thought, but this is hardly of significance to this article. Crucially, however, in Lyotard's own words, certain markers from the immediate past stand out:  ....certain events which provide a paradoxical, negative occasion for this highly cultivated community sense to reveal itself publicly: Auschwitz, Budapest 1956, May 1968... Each one of these abysses, and others, asks to be explored with precision in its specificity. The fact remains that all of them liberate judgement, that if they are to be felt, judgement must take place without a criterion, and that this feeling becomes in turn a sign of history. (1989: 409) And thus we start with moments when the Grand Narratives blew themselves up: Hegel/Nietzsche at Auschwitz, Marx in Budapest, Liberal Kapital in Paris. Lyotard sums up his arguments at the end of The Postmodern Condition by offering a new manifesto: The nineteenth and twentieth centuries have given us as much terror as we can take. We have paid a high enough price for the nostalgia of the whole and the one, for the reconciliation of the concept and the sensible, of the transparent and the communicable experience. Under the general demand for slackening and appeasement, we can hear the mutterings for the realization of the fantasy to seize reality. The answer is: Let us wage a war on totality, let us be witnesses to the unrepresentable; let us activate the differences and save the honour of the name. (1984b: 81-2) Lyotard places himself in the position to invent a new programme for the state of the world. But because he has to go back in order to go forward, he has to dredge up from the past likely candidates for routes that might have been taken. In something that reads like a classical Popperian scenario, the grizzly enemies of the past are Plato (even worse, Aristotle), Hegel, Marx. The relation of the one to the whole is the clear problem. Its ultimate political resolution is the penitentiary, Auschwitz, the Gulag. "Where you establish the penitentiary is up to you: Kolyma, Dachau, Cologne-Ossendorf." (1989: 140). All the meta-narratives lead to the death camps:  They will be interned in the desmostery, the central prison. They will see no one. The judges will decide what food rations they should get, and these will be brought to them by slaves. When they die, their bodies will be cast outside the city walls and left unburied. (1989: 139) But the solution to all this is not to create yet another meta-narrative. It is, rather to make a distinction between the narrator and the narratee. In discussing Solzhenitsyn's Gulag Archipelago, he spells out his theory of "narration without transitivity": Solzhenitsyn passes on stories as he narrates his story.....The functions of the narrator and of what he is talking about (the narrated) are permutable because his companions (the narrated) are his narrator-heroes. And because it is also possible for the narrator to change places with the people he is addressing, with his companions and us. After all, anyone can tell stories; this is the source of Everyman's strength. Anyone who discusses the Gulag is simply using the book as a reference for his own discourse, and using it to make up another narration, his own narration, and addressing readers who may or may not be the same. (1989: 134) Of course, it matters not in this account by Lyotard that Solzhenitsyn, like Dostoievsky, had behind all this his own meta-narrative of Slavism and the primacy of the Orthodox church, what matters more is that this lower-level narratology confirms in Lyotard that there exists, somewhere, a swarm of narratives, narratives that are passed on, made up, listened to and acted out; the people do not exist as a subject; it is a mass of thousands of little stories that are futile and serious, that are sometimes attracted together to form bigger stories, and which sometimes disintegrate into drifting elements, but which usually hold together well enough to form what we call the culture of civil society. (1989: 134) The problem with Plato, Hegel, Marx was that these stories were woven into a whole, a monologic whole to use Bakhtin's language (to which I shall return, as Lyotard never does) in which language games which are contests between tricksters are sealed off. If language is a performance, then in the metanarrative the cards are stacked against most of the actors because, whatever stories they want to say, they are ultimately doomed to act out the script that has been written for them. In this libertarian project the problem, then, is in what ways the major theorists foreclose, but also offer the potential for revealing the stories of that which might have been done. This is no idle project, and derives from Lyotard's days as a phenomenologist. It owes something to Merleau-Ponty, something to Greimas, something to Husserl, a fair amount to Heidegger, a debate with Levi-Strauss on universalisms, but is overlayed with the performance/games language of English, Canadian and American writers such as John Austin, Erving Goffman, Gregory Bateson and Anatol Rappoport. The issue of what stories we tell about ourselves and experiences, how do they connect with other stories, and how do they survive the telling by those who would mastermind ours and everyone else's destinities is surely an important one. The tragedy of Lyotard, as with many other contemporary theorists, is that in posing the question, he lost the sense of the equipment that we may need to develop a strategy. The aesthetic route, taken by many others (Baudelaire, Marcuse, Benjamin) may be the source of his problems. NEXT: Banishing the Poets and Artists: Reifying Scientific Stories ------------------------ 140347 The truth about dirty oil and clean renewables (english) by Concerned Citizen 9:05am Mon Feb 25 '02 (Modified on 2:27pm Mon Feb 25 '02) Here are some facts, not that you people are ever interested in facts, about the current inneficiency of wind power as a viable alternative to Oil. I have read a continuous stream of articles on this site where the virtues of wind (and solar) power are touted as a viable alternative to fossil fuels for energy production. The following is a factual (there's that troubling concept) representation of a scenario comparing drilling for oil in ANWR and the wind alternative. One barrel of crude oil (42 gallons) generates approximately 520 kilowatts of electricity. On average, one operating windmill on property managed by the Bureau of Land Management generates approximately 178 kilowatts of electricity per day (that would mean it would then take about three windmills to equal the electricity from one barrel of oil). Windmills on BLM land take up approximately 3 acres of land each. It's calculated that ANWR would produce 1 million barrels of oil a day for approximately 30 years. Accordingly it would take 3 million windmills — covering 9 million acres of land — to equal the energy tapped from a tiny strip of ANWR. Or, more simply put, nearly every acre of Connecticut (3.1 million acres) and Massachusetts (more than 5 million acres) would have to be blanketed by windmills. Now before you say that solar is a viable alternative, the numbers for power generation under the current technology are even worse than for wind. Notice that this scenario depicts just the potential electrical power capacity in the two energy sources. Given these facts doesn't it make sense to at least explore the possibility of drilling in ANWR, at least the 1% that has been proposed. That is, unless you all want to give up your cars, air conditioners, and other conveniences of modern living that consume power. add your own comments --------------Thisempiresucks (the world dry) (english) by Corey Thisempiresucks 9:29am Mon Feb 25 '02 He's right, we are running out of oil. Hey y'know what we COULD do for some more oil? We could shut down investigations into terrorist organizations; allow 1 or 2 horrible acts of terror to occur, then use national outrage to start a completely insane homicidal war that pushes the world to the edge of destruction. Then we could ride the resulting wave of national "unity" to enact a regime change in certain oil-wealthy middle-eastern countries, and send our corporate leaders over to help out with the new pipelines that'll crisscross the landscape. Besides, we could totally wipe out a lot of those anti-capitalist fools by dropping clusterbombs all over the country-side, and tell them it's for their own good! I think it could work... but no; we're all about Justice, and Peace and all that stuff right? Here's the truth, not that the author cares.. (english) by tas 10:17am Mon Feb 25 '02 dick@tmok.com Placing stricter controls and enforcing laws for all types of automobiles (especially SUVs) that made it against the law to sell a vehicle that is getting 15 miles, or less, to the gallon, would do so much to conserve our oil usage that we wouldn't even be talking about ANWR. But, unfortunately, you have every car company producing hug, gas guzzling SUVs to sell to suburbnites who don't even need such a beast of a machine to use for their daily commute to work. With the discussion of alternatives to oil, how come the author only comes up with solar and wind energy to stack up against oil? Why not vegetable oils and hemp oil? The diseal engine was originally designed to run on vegetable oils; Herny Ford not only build a Model-T that was powered by hemp oil, but also used hemp fibres to make the plastic body of the car, was was stronger than a steel body. The Hempcar crew (http://hempcar.org) that travelled cross-country last summer in a car powered by hemp oil brought some pretty significant facts to light that seemingly everybody ignores: you can modify hemp oil so that it can power engines of normal, unleaded cars; and all the farm land used in America for tax write off purposes (ie: nothing is grown on this land, by government order) is more then enough land that would be needed to produce a hemp crop suitable for our nations energy needs. Don't want to legalize hemp? Use corn oil. Canadians already have to option to fill up their tank with corn oil. It can mix with gasoline on top of running your car. And I didn't even talk about the fuel cell technology that is still in development. Even conservative market economists are starting to ask why our government is not looking into alternative energies to limit our dependence on foreign oil, and thus placing our economy in the hands of a region of the world which is constantly at war. Any idiot knows that opening up ANWR is not going to solve our dependence on foreign oil, and when putting up a single oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico to drill is going to cost $100 million, it's starting to look less and less practical. So, "Concerned Citizen", there's the truth. Not like you care. --------------- Something seems a little off ... (english) by some guy named josh 12:04pm Mon Feb 25 '02 I would like to know how it is that one windmill manages to take up three acres of land. That must be one huge windmill. I'm going to guess that the flaw in this calculation comes in the way the numbers were gathered. The windmills, are probably not spread out one for every three acres, but are much closer together, with a lot of the BML land as yet unused. This would distort the numbers, as they are probably averaged out, like a nations population density. The windmills certainly aren't three acres apart in the movies, when generic white male protagonists invariably have to parachute into fields of them. -------------- Where's the net? (english) by KD 1:10pm Mon Feb 25 '02 Any calculations of the relative merits of alternative and existing energy technologies are meaningless in the absence of NET ENERGY ANALYSIS. It takes energy to make energy, even with oil, and especially with renewables. If you don't do the math to prove your case, you're just making assertions, which are pretty much worthless. ENERGETIC LIMITS TO GROWTH by Jay Hanson ? www.dieoff.com Appeared in ENERGY Magazine, Spring, 1999 http://dieoff.org/page175.htm ------------------ ..andanotherthing... (english) by junglejaws 1:20pm Mon Feb 25 '02 ...3 acres per windmill-that's a load... 178KW/windmill, these must be SMALL windmills. There are windmills used now in Calif. =500KW. & ones on the drawing boards for 2MegaW.-that's right 2MegaWatts & they don't need 3 acres of land either. BTW don't count out wave generators & solar. hemp&corn oil can be used in gasengines up to 50%-that's a 50% reduction in oil usage-that good enough for you!! Do you even know what kilowatt is? (english) by PJD 2:27pm Mon Feb 25 '02 You wrote... "One barrel of crude oil (42 gallons) generates approximately 520 kilowatts of electricity." "On average, one operating windmill on property managed by the Bureau of Land Management generates approximately 178 kilowatts of electricity per day (that would mean it would then take about three windmills to equal the electricity from one barrel of oil)." Why are you writing this when you apparently dont even have an elementary education in physics/mechanics. A kilowatt is not a unit of energy, it is a unit of power. power is the rate that enegy is expended. Power expression "kilowatts per day" is nonsensical. If you mean kilowatt-hours, the usual unit of energy this has to be a way low value. 1.2mw wind turbines were recently installed near where I live in Pennsylvania. Assuming only half of this output (due to periods of light or no wind or downtime) this would still be 144,000 kilowatt-hours, or about 280 barrels of oil _if_ your number is correct. Of course, dozens of these can be installed on a typical wind farm, and all the land can still be used for farming except a 10' square area at the base of each mast. BTW, what does the BLM have to do with this? ---------------------- februari 25th was a day with good item quality news (not much good news though) http://www.enabling.org/ia/szasz via http://www.redflagsweekly.com/ ------------- http://www.ebate.nl/ebate.detail.   php?task=view&ebateArticleID=8 Dioxinekippen, pestvarkens en BSE-koeien Jan Douwe van der Ploeg z'n VN artikel word genoemd ---------------- 140474 Monsanto --- I go: Last weekend a dutch daily carried an article about bt cotton in China; all upbeat about the enormous gains achieved for and by farmers (20 and 80%) while Monsanto is held on a leish. Of course Holland is the last country you should trust when it comes to agriculture the entire prestigious town of Wageningen has but one person of note: jan douwe van der ploeg -------- mailto:Jan.douwevanderploeg@alg.swg.wau.nl http://www.sls.wau.nl/rs/ -- -----Constructing coherence: analysis and design for endogenous rural development This workshop wishes to explore the meaning and usefulness of the concept of coherence for the development of new perspectives on the construction of sustainable livelihoods. We observe that, in spite of, and thanks to, modernization approaches to the development of the countryside, rural people are continuously looking for ways to survive, or make their dreams come true. In doing so, people are relating things, appropriating and transforming them, bringing them together in a diversity of unexpected arrangements - e.g. the diverse ways in which local markets are related to local natural resources, or the multiple strategies people develop to make a living, even in crisis situations as wars or droughts. These arrangements are nonetheless coherent; they have meaning, because their constituting elements explain themselves mutually. But how do people do so? How do people build coherence? What strategies are involved? How do they build coherence with other people? In other words, how do their projects interlock? And then: how do research institutions build coherence? How do government institutions do it? And what scientific tools do we have to perceive this coherence? Or better: this diversity of interlocking coherence? How do we value it? We believe that on the one hand, most rural development and research policies ignore existing local coherence. On the other hand, by ignoring this coherence, research and policy incur not only in the destruction of local capital, but also in the destruction of the constructing, designing and localizing capacities of local people. Endogenous development is no other thing to us than attributing importance to these capacities of rural people. Our stance is that there are few analytic tools that are able to grasp the synthesizing, compositional aspects of human life. We need them badly, in order to enlarge our common design capacity for viable, sustainable alternatives for the rural world. The styles of farming approach is an example, several of the so-called learning approaches to development are another, but we will need more. What proposals do you have? In this workshop we welcome all kinds of contributions - theoretical, empirical and artistic - that stimulate discussion on the construction of coherence. --------- http://www.ileia.org/2/17-2/26-27.PDF (couldn't convert this to htm) ------------------------- 140286 Someone beat the Europeans to America (english) by ... 1:19am Mon Feb 25 '02 When this article was written] Hisham Zoubeir is at the University of Sheffield undertaking a multi-disciplinary degree in law. He has lived in Abu Dhabi, Cairo and London. His main interests delves into peace, equality, righteousness and spirituality. Before I begin this article, I would like to extend my thanks to the creators of the Internet. It was there that I found my research on the topic that follows, and it is to the people who wrote the various articles and references that credit for this article should go to. I merely put two and two together for the benefit of those reading this now. The history surrounding the followers of our proud faith is one of two shades; the truth and the lie. The lies surrounding our history have been spread to every corner of the globe; that we were and are (?) barbarians, no better than animals. The truth is that although there were certain parts of history that do show that some of our followers were ruthless and brutal (such as the Ottoman Empire), this is not unlike every nation and country in the world. And we have a much more worthy things to focus on. Before the West declared themselves the great scientists of the earth, before their own Renaissance, Muslims already were making discoveries in science that took the West hundreds of years to even begin to imagine. What a shame that people in Europe were being persecuted by the Church for their suppositions that the earth was round; they should have come to the Islamic world--- an Afghan Muslim had proved that in 793 C.E.! However, the studying of the universe brought forth more questions, and more curiosity. The Muslims in West Africa were so intrigued by what was on the other side of the Great Sea, that they began their expeditions into the great unknown. Early reports of these travels are sketchy, but we can be sure that they crossed the Atlantic by 889 C.E. That was 603 years before Columbus. And that is not counting the actual physical evidence in the United States today that dates back even further; however, we do know, as De Lacy O'Leary pointed out, that Muslims definitely had the scientific knowledge and skill to make journeys across the Atlantic ocean. We were in the Americas, hundreds of years before Columbus, and of that we can be sure. Clyde-Ahmad Winters. Barry Fell. Alexander Von Wuthenau. Ivan Van Sertima. What do they have in common? A lot. They all provided evidence to the above statement; and it is a statement of fact, not an opinion, although many have chosen to ignore it in the past. Now, we are all aware of the grave tragedy that befell the various African people after the discovery of America. Many people from there were forcefully taken from their homes to America, to serve the people who had taken over that land. Black slavery. We also know, for a fact, that many of these people were indeed Muslims; that has never been in dispute, nor should it be. Clyde Ahmad Winters has given us details of how huge numbers of Muslims were brought to Latin America in a 1978 issue of Al-Ittihad: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Studies, although later on in 1543, Muslims in Spanish colonies were ejected from them by the residing government. Dr. Barry Fell, a noted New Zealand archaeologist and linguist of Harvard University showed detailed existing evidence in his work, "Saga America" that Muslims were not only in the Americas before Columbus arrived, but very active there as well. The language of the Pima people in the South West and the Algonquian language had many words in their vocabulary that were Arabic in origin, and Islamic petroglyphs were found in places such as California. In the Inyo county of the State of California, according to Fell, there is another petroglyph that states, "Yasus bin Maria" which means in Arabic, "Jesus, son of Mary". This is not a Christian phrase; in fact, the phrase is to be found in the verses and ayahs of the Holy Quran. This glyph, as Fell believes, is centuries older than the US. In the Western states of the US he found texts, diagrams and charts engraved on rocks that were used for schooling that dated back to 700-800 C.E. The schooling was in subjects such as mathematics, history, geography, astronomy and sea navigation. The language of instruction was Kufic Arabic, from North Africa. The German art historian, Alexander Von Wuthenau, also provides evidence that Islamic peoples were in America, in the time between 300 and 900 C.E. This was at least half a millennium before Columbus was born! Carved heads, that were described as "Moorish-looking" were dated between 300 and 900 C.E. and another group of heads dated between 900 and 1500 C.E. An artifact found in the earlier group was photographed, and when later examined was found to resemble an old man in a Fez, like the Egyptians. Ivan Van Sertima is widely renowned for his work, "They Came Before Columbus" which showed that there was definitely contact between the ancient and early African people with the Native Americans. This and another of his works, "African Presence in Early America" both prove that there were African Muslim settlements in the Americas, before the expedition of Columbus was even conceived. His research has shown that Arab Muslim trade was active in America and one can only imagine that the marvellous culture that the Native Americans had that shared so much with Islamic teachings was of great attraction to the Muslims that came so far across the sea. And for the record, Christopher Columbus, the man who so-called discovered America, himself declared that his impression of the Carib people (i.e., Caribbean people) were "Mohemmedans." He knew of the Mandinka presence in the New World (Muslims) and that Muslims from the West coast of Africa had settled down in the Carribean, Central, South and North America. Unlike Columbus, they had not come to enslave the populations or plunder the land; they had come to trade and they married among the Natives. Columbus further admitted that on October 21st, 1492, as he was sailing past Gibara on the coast of Cuba, he saw a mosque, and remnants of other masjids have been found in Cuba, Mexico, Texas and Nevada. On the second voyage Columbus took to the West Indies, the people of Haiti told him that "black" people had been there before him. They showed him spears of these visitors, and further study of the metals involved in their construction showed that they could have been made only in one place: Guinea. Another historian, P.V. Ramos, also showed in his essay in "African Presence in Early America" that the dietary regulations of the Carib were similar to Islamic teachings. But let us say that we are wrong. Perhaps it is all just a coincidence; after all, there are no living survivors of the Native American Muslims, are they? Wrong. And this last part is what originally drew me into this quest for knowledge: an exposé written by a Native Muslim. Brother Mahir Abdal-Razzaaq El wrote in his account, recently posted on the Internet, about the Native Americans that were Muslims. He is of the Cherokee tribe; known as Eagle Sun Walker, and a Pipe Carrier Warrior of the Cherokees in New York. He tells of Muslim travellers that came to his land over one thousand years ago, and what is more important, existing evidence of legislation, treaties and resolutions that prove, beyond the shadow of a doubt that Muslims were in the Americas and very active. Although these documents have not been written after 1492, it is still interesting to note that Islam was in fact there. The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1787 have the signatures of Abdel-Khak and Mohammed Bin Abdulla. According to a federal court case from the Continental Congress, Native Muslims helped put life into the constitution. These are a matter of record; they cannot be disputed. Go to the National Archives or the Library of Congress and see for yourself; the Treat of 1987 show that the Natives abided by an Islamic system in commerce, maritime shipping and government. The records of the State of Carolina has the Moors Sundry Act of 1790. The Cherokee Chief of 1866 was a man called Ramadhan Bin Wati. Native clothing up until 1832 was full Islamic wear. The name Tallahassee actually means," Allah will deliver you sometime in the future." In North America, there are no less than 565 names of tribes, villages, cities, mountains and other lands sites of Islamic or Arabic roots. The truth of Islam and the truth of the Native American culture is one and the same; many people hundreds of years ago realised that. The protection of the land and of the animals; the non-wastage of resources and the non-pollution of nature are all Islamic concepts. I finish this article with a few Native sayings. And then, I want you to tell me that Islam is not nurtured in the hearts of these people. "Our belief is that the Great Spirit has created all things. Not just mankind but animals, all plants, all rocks, all on earth and amongst the stars with true soul. For us, all life is holy. All of nature is within us and we are part of all nature." Chief White Cloud "What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night." Crowfoot "In the life of the Indian there was only one inevitable duty- the duty of prayer - the daily recognition of the Unseen and the Eternal." Ohiyesa Also see http://www.latinmuslims.com/history/timeline.html ---------------- 141041 'Israelis' Contemplate the Unthinkable—Moving Out (english) by Sylvana Foa 2:12pm Tue Feb 26 '02 (Modified on 6:43pm Tue Feb 26 '02) Many Israelis are "preoccupied with a subject no one likes to talk about . . . ways to get the hell out of here," columnist Yoel Marcus wrote in Ha'Aretz the other day. Increasingly anxious about their children's security, tired of paying exorbitant taxes to support what they consider "religious parasites," and pessimistic about the future, a growing number of young Israeli professionals are looking at the possibility of leaving the country. For good. "Today we hear that there are 300,000 Israelis just in New York City. No one is ashamed anymore. Even the older generation is not ashamed to tell their kids to go and to urge them not to come back." Israelis Contemplate the Unthinkable—Moving Out Escaping the Hell of the Holy Land by Sylvana Foa Village Voice Week of February 13 - 19, 2002 http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0207/foa.php JAFFA—It is no longer unmentionable, but people are still careful. Young mothers at the playground whisper about it so the kids won't hear. People test their friends at dinner parties by casually mentioning the "worrying" trend. Many Israelis are "preoccupied with a subject no one likes to talk about . . . ways to get the hell out of here," columnist Yoel Marcus wrote in Ha'Aretz the other day. It's true. Ask Tali. Increasingly anxious about their children's security, tired of paying exorbitant taxes to support what they consider "religious parasites," and pessimistic about the future, a growing number of young Israeli professionals are looking at the possibility of leaving the country. For good. And Israelis aren't the only ones—more and more Palestinians want out, too. Some 20 percent of adult Israelis say they have recently considered living in a different country, according to a January poll conducted by Market Watch for Ma'ariv newspaper. More surprising, the survey found that 12 percent of Israeli parents would like their children to grow up outside Israel. An earlier poll by the Mutagim Agency for Ha'Aretz said only 37 percent of Israelis held negative feelings toward those who left, and 16 percent actually viewed them positively. Those are startling statistics in a country where the late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin once described emigrants as the "lowliest of parasites." The stigma attached to those who leave Israel is encoded in the language. Those who immigrate to Israel perform aliya or "going up." Those who leave commit yerida or "going down." You've probably heard the joke about the Israeli in New York who walks into an elevator full of Israelis speaking Hebrew. "Yordim (Going down)?" he asks. "Of course not," they quickly answer. "We're here temporarily." The majority of those looking at alternatives are simply seeking a security blanket. They cite the escalation of horrifying terrorist attacks and worsening economic woes. Many have recently lost their jobs. They want the options that come with owning an apartment abroad, a second passport, or a green card. Of those seriously talking about leaving the country, most are new immigrants from the former USSR or English-speaking countries, who already hold a second passport and have the support of friends and family abroad. But the numbers include many sabras, who were born in Israel, who served in the army, and who love the country. One of those sabras is my friend Tali, a 40-year-old architect with a physicist husband and two young children. Tali is such a fervent Israeli and so passionate about the country that I was shocked when she let it drop that she was looking at "other options." "The main reason we are thinking about going is that we have no hope for the future for the kids," she said. "We work very hard and pay so much income tax. The government's priorities are not my priorities. They give my money to religious families with 10 kids. And we don't see things getting better. "Twenty years ago it was taboo, shameful, for Israelis to leave the country," Tali said. "Today we hear that there are 300,000 Israelis just in New York City. No one is ashamed anymore. Even the older generation is not ashamed to tell their kids to go and to urge them not to come back." According to government statistics, 37 percent of the world's Jews live in Israel. The rest are scattered across the globe, in that space with the magical-sounding name: the diaspora. No one knows how many Israelis are in the diaspora, but two years ago it was estimated that there were 500,000 of them, or 8.3 percent of the Israeli population. It has to be more now. The daily Yedioth Aharonot recently ticked off a list of prominent Israeli families who have children or grandchildren living abroad. The list included the families of former Israeli prime ministers David Ben-Gurion, Menachem Begin, and Yitzhak Rabin. Israelis were shocked. "Once there was a sense of Zionism here. My grandparents came because this was the place Jews should be," Tali said. "Now the mentality has changed, people have changed. Everyone is in it for himself. People have become very aggressive. This is no longer a nice place to live; there is no quality of life. "Some of our friends have already left," she said. "All were educated, middle-class professionals, the kind of people Israel needs. One friend, a doctor, moved to Boston. I doubt he will ever come back." "If we get a good offer someplace, we'll leave, but we're not looking too intensively," Tali said. "We're not under pressure; we both work. Also, there are so few nice places to go. New Zealand is a bit too far. The really nice parts of Europe or Scandinavia are not pro-Israeli. "I heard lots of people want to go to Vanuatu [an island in the South Pacific]," Tali said. "But I would never go to a place where there were so many Israelis! "I read that many middle-class Palestinians were leaving, too," she said. "They don't talk about it because it demoralizes those who stay. Their reasons are less economical and more the sense of hopelessness that we all feel. They are going to Canada, Scandinavia, and New Zealand. "So if we want to run away from the Arabs, there's only Easter Island left," she laughed. "But seriously, it is not the Arabs we are running away from—it is the kind of people Israelis have become after living for 50 years with this pressure." Ha'Aretz correspondents Uriya Shavit and Jalal Bana investigated the "secret exodus" of Palestinians and found a profile similar to that of Israelis seeking to leave: "young, educated, and with no hope." A large number of Palestinians leaving were also "new immigrants" who had come back to the territories from America or Europe when peace appeared to be at hand, only to see their hope for a decent life blown apart by a renewed eruption of violence. In an interview with Yedioth Aharonot last month, Yossi Beilin, a Knesset member from the Labor Party, said he is now hearing things that he never heard before. His old army pals and schoolmates, people in their fifties, are privately saying that they would not mind, or would even be glad, if their children moved someplace else. Beilin wondered aloud at the hawkish policies of Defense Minister Benjamin "Fuad" Ben-Eliezer and Matan Vilnai, minister of science, culture, and sport, both of whom have children living outside the country. He said it was hard for him to understand how Fuad and Vilnai could fail to see the price they are paying for policies which could result in their children never coming back to Israel. He said he did not think Fuad made decisions that contribute to the cycle of violence and "endanger our children just because his children are not here. "But I tell him: Don't you understand that you will stay here alone? Look at your children. Is there anything harder than the fact that your children are leaving the country?" Tell us what you think. editor@villagevoice.com http://www.villagevoice.com/issues/0207/foa.php www.villagevoice.com/issues/0207/foa.php add your own comments Flattered (english) by New Zealander 6:32pm Tue Feb 26 '02 How nice that everyone wants to come here! (What a relief that my great grandparents all thought the same way.) Of course, once they get here they will discover that even NZ has its moments (i.e. outbreak of gang warfare in Palmerston North, 6-y-o Napier girl murdered horribly 14 years ago and left on a beach, had her killer arrested yesterday to NZ's absolute delight after improved technology made the dna traceable). Albeit, of course, that compared to many other countries we are still innocents.  Meanwhile, its a nice calm and sunny day here in NZ and school's just finished for the day (grrr). So that is what the 'want to come to NZ' folk are missing today. Well.... (english) by greg 6:43pm Tue Feb 26 '02 The sad thing about it is that none of this ever had to happen. If the Jews who wanted to live in that region had paid for their homes instead of taking and bulldozing the homes of others, and had tolerated the "goy" instead of gunning down their kids, maybe they would be welcomed instead of hated. Alas, that was not to be and so the exodus begins. I hope that whereever they go, they will learn to live with others as equals, and pay for what they want instead of stealing it. ---------------- 141033 Letter to a Fallen Friend (english) by Emadeddin Fraitekh 1:50pm Tue Feb 26 '02 (Modified on 2:05pm Tue Feb 26 '02) ejfraitekh@wrmea.com "Israeli military sources said Khamis Ahmad Ali, head of a militia linked to the Fatah movement in the Askar refugee camp, near Nablus, was killed by Israeli commandos." Letter to a Fallen Friend By Emadeddin J. Fraitekh "Israeli military sources said Khamis Ahmad Ali, head of a militia linked to the Fatah movement in the Askar refugee camp, near Nablus, was killed by Israeli commandos." Dear friend, I received word of your death by Israeli assassins on Jan. 17. I feel a mixture of sadness and pride, helplessness and hope – a bittersweet pill one has to swallow in the just Palestinian struggle against Israeli oppression, tyranny, and occupation. I learned of your assassination not from your or my family and friends, but from news reports. Not known in your too-short life, you have become famous now—albeit not because of who you are, but because of what your killers claimed you to be: a terrorist. Can you believe that? The mastermind and cause of all terror in the Middle East still has the temerity to call its victims "terrorists." But, wherever you might be now my friend, you may rest assured that, regardless of what Israel calls you, I call you a friend. The only thing Israel knew about you and hated was your love for freedom and self-determination. I too knew that about you and much more. I remember you as my shy young friend who politely cleared your throat at our door whenever you visited our home so as not to embarrass my sisters by catching them unaware of your presence. I remember your love for poetry, music, debkeh dancing, and your enthusiasm for body-building. Perhaps you care less about what Israel’s propaganda machine in the U.S. and elsewhere labels you. I do, however, care a lot. Because your assassination tells as much about the crooked morality of Israel as it does about the righteousness of the Palestinian cause. Yet, Israel’s campaign to dehumanize the Palestinians in order to justify its apartheid policies against them is spreading like wildfire across America. Listen, my friend. Israel’s crimes are being sold to the American public as self-defense – merely preemptive strikes against terrorists. See? Even the president of the U.S., George W. Bush, says he "understands why Israel does what it does." See, my friend? Very few Americans would question why an Israeli sniper would shoot and kill a 10-year-old Palestinian child. Instead the majority of Americans would wonder what a Palestinian child was doing in the path of an Israeli bullet. I know the Israelis have always wanted you dead. Not just because you are Palestinian. But because you rejected tyranny in a voice loud enough for them to hear. But why did Israel have to assassinate you? You never fled from battle, even when all you had to confront Israel’s M-16s, Uzi machine guns, tanks and helicopters were onions and a slingshot. Remember when, in 1978, a protest was staged against Meir Kahane’s attempts to plant a Jewish settlement in the heart of Nablus, our hometown? Israeli soldiers surrounded our high school and started bombarding us with tear gas. I recall how you managed to sneak in with two bags full of fresh onions and cotton. We knew what the cotton was for, but wondered about the onion. "The smell of onion," you told us, "is Palestine’s natural defense against Israel’s tear gas." We were all crying from the tear gas but laughing at what you said, and then we heard our teacher, Nabil, say, "I hope the soldiers don’t make onion soup out of all of you." At that we laughed even harder and louder. You should have been killed in action, but the Israelis chose the way of the coward. In the darkness of the night they waited for you. They hid behind the tombstones of Palestinians they had killed the morning before, the trunks of trees they had uprooted the day before, the rubble of homes they had demolished the night before, and behind the fragile walls defending a defenseless Palestinian refugee camp. Then, at 4:30 a.m. their chosen target arrived, and the army of assassins shot to kill. Alleluia, one more Palestinian is down. Just between you and me—and you know I won’t tell anybody—what were you doing out all alone at 4:30 a.m., anyway? Protecting the camp and its 15,000 refugees from Israel’s army trying yet again to reoccupy what they already occupy? That’s the version Israel would like us to believe. Rise and answer me, my friend. Was that it? Were you trying to be a hero? The truth is that you were just returning to your shanty home after spending the night taking care of your ailing grandmother. Damn you. You have left six children behind. Did you never think Palestine has no dire need for six more orphans? Or the camp does not need more hungry mouths to feed? No, you did not – because you did not want to die. You just wanted to go home. Why am I speaking on your behalf? Why don’t you rise and speak up and tell the whole world that once again Israel has lied about its victims? Remember in 1976 how, where, and when they killed 17-year-old Leena Nabulsi? They fabricated a story only the Israeli public and its trusting American ally would buy. The Israeli army claimed that Leena threatened the life of an Israeli soldier during a demonstration at her school. Israel radio reported that their soldier first fired warning shots in the air, then shot at her feet, and finally had to shoot her when she pulled a knife on him. That was a lie from start to finish. Leena had no knife and threatened no one’s life. She did not want to kill anyone, nor did she seek to be executed in cold blood. She, like all of us, demonstrated against the occupation and threw stones at the soldiers from behind the fence of our school. The difference between Leena and the rest of us that day was that she dared to carry the Palestinian flag. The flag angered the Israelis more than our stones, which fell short of their target. An Earlier Execution After the protest was over we all walked home. One Israeli soldier recognized Leena as the girl who had carried and waved the Palestinian flag. He pointed at her, yelled at her, and ordered her to stand still. She was scared. We all were scared. Leena ran away, and so did we. We hid in an apartment building a few blocks from our school. The soldiers followed us into the building. They found us hiding in one apartment, and they found Leena hiding under the dining table in the living room of a family we did not know. The soldier pointed at her and said, "There she is!" and another opened fire. She was executed right then and there, in front of everyone present, so we could see, take note, and learn the lesson. Is it any wonder, then, why we do not believe the Israelis and never will? My friend, you must rise and speak. The only witnesses to your murder were you and your killers. If you do not testify now, they will rewrite the scenario and reprint the book. As always, they will have been cleaning their weapons, reloading the magazines, and crying harder about being victims of Palestinian terror. In front of their own judge in their own court they will claim that a monstrous shadow of a savage Palestinian emerged from the midst of a refugee camp, attacked them, threatened their safety and endangered the security of the state of Israel. You are the salt of the earth now and to you the land will sing: Resurrect. The promise is still the promise. We will look forward and we shall witness the sun of our dreams cutting through the thick clouds and it shall pour down freedom. And when it is time for the Palestinians to celebrate the arrival of their liberty I will dance debkeh and I will dedicate a turn just for you. This is my promise to you. Congratulations, my friend, and so long. [END] Emadeddin J. Fraitekh is the Washington Report’s Executive Web Producer. www.wrmea.com/ add your own comments --------------- How long will it take... (english) by Jay Hovah 2:05pm Tue Feb 26 '02 ...till someone claims this article is 'anti-semetic'?? ------------------------------ --------------------------------- 

142290 Henk adresses his Dutch queen: Letter to Dutch Minister Vermeend and Queen Beatrix: All not responded. Subject: unemployment 28th of August 1999 Dear Mr. Vermeend, My name is Henk ..., I'm 35 years old and already searching for 8 years to get a decent job. I haven't scored anything, not even with all the beautiful profits in our economy. At the time, in 1992, I graduated as an environmental educator, but I couldn't find a job. After a while, it finally seemed to be there, around september '99. At that time I could do an internet project with a job guarantee that was financed by the European Social Foundation and it was in co-operation with the employment office. I've put a lot of signatures on an agreement that told me that would have to give full co-operation with the threat of shortening and stopping my alimony. This despite the fact that was the one who wanted to start this project in the first place, the employment office first wanted me to do some tests. I think that an agreement only works out if both sides follow the rules. In mean while that I continued the project, the "but's" and "maybe's" came to show up about the job guarantee. Looking back, it only gave me a ticket to aid instead of the promised job. From the 22 participants, only four got a job and three didn't even got the training course! Now, three hundred requests further, I still don't have a job. Once I got to the aid, I got a brochure with information about appropriate jobs. In that brochure they explained that if you couldn't find a job in 6 months, that any job would be appropriate. But they don't give an explanation for the fact how it is possible to not find a job after 6 months of searching for one. I don't expect that, if you don't find a job during six months of requests, you would find one while working in a factory. My questions are: Do I, a high educated man, have to work in a factory for the rest of my life, doing non-educated work? That isn't reasonable at all, is it? The same with the fact that they attract thousands of foreigners to work in the IT-business, wherefore unemployed people get rejected every time. That isn't reasonable either! I did accept charity work and also a lot of "non-appropriate" work, through factory and meat factory's to WIW*. Conclusion: Jealous colleagues didn't accept me and the bosses weren't waiting for me either. One of the bosses was honest enough to admit that he couldn't understand what I was doing there at all. Honestly, I didn't knew either! I also know a lot of story's from other unemployed people who got more and more problems after several hundred of requests. It's the same with me, I'm searching like crazy to get a job, I adjust myself and even then the bosses don't want me because of the poverty of experience that I have. I keep falling back and back in the misery of the aid... It would change a lot if you would finally see that your politics of the devil frustrates in stead of stimulates and that is morally rejectable. Keeping the payment low to stimulate people to get a job is just a story from people who have no idea what they're talking about! There's no way to defend the fact that work which I'm totally not capable to do, is remark as "appropriate" work. A couple of years ago hundred thousands of people had put their signature to get a structural increase of the payments. They've never listened like they've never asked for the opinions of the unemployed people. Still, as a christian, I ask you once again for your help to get a structural increase of the payments and wages for the WIW* and ID people and to give a financial compensation for all the years that we've lost. Because, if there is so much work, why are there still WIW* and ID jobs? I also want to ask to maintain and fortify the concept "appropriate" work and to influence the concept of employers so that they accept protracted unemployed people, putting limitations on the flexibility of the work and do what they've promised; a right to a well paid appropriate job for everyone that is unemployed. I also would like to have a personal conversation with you, preferably with the presence of the press. Finally, as an add to this letter, the fact of the arbitrary with which they put the unemployed people in Category D or Phase 4 at the employment office. This means that it is impossible to mediate you while there is still the obligation of searching for a job. But in fact they make you incapable to work and the question still stands if this is legally right? With regards, Henk 1 year later: A box full of rejections! The club of requesting says I'll stay unemployed in the near future... I have to adjust myself to that. *WIW: Unemployed Reïntegration Law. anaisnin.cjb.net ------------------- Chuck Zero versus Marc Cooper From: Louis Proyect Subject: Chuck Zero versus Marc Cooper Date: Fri, 08 Feb 2002 11:31:23 -0800 (Comrades might recall Marc Cooper's visit here a while back. Not only did he align himself with the Pacifica hijackers, he has been shifting to the right on a consistent basis with all of the other Nation Magazine muck-a-mucks--Henwood, Hitchens and company. Henwood posted a screed of Cooper's against the US left to LBO-Talk that was supposedly a report on Porto Alegre. Chuck "Zero" Munson, who is to the Internet for anarchism, as I am for Marxism, wrote a nifty reply to Cooper that appears below.) Doug Henwood wrote: > > > > L.A. Weekly - February 8 - 14, 2002 > > Left With Hope > Some un-American thoughts from Brazil on global Justice > > by Marc Cooper > ------------ Let's face it, LBOers, Marc Cooper is a jerk and a self-important scumbag. ANy of you want to take bar bets with me on when he completely sells out and starts writing for Front Page magazine? Ah yes, I know Marc's ilk very well. Older white guys from the Old New Left. Very likely to flag down the nearest cute activist at some activist meeting and ask them to get him a drink. All the time passing out his card to people to let them know that he is a WRITER FOR THE NATION MAGAZINE. As if anybody cares. > PORTO ALEGRE, BRAZIL -- AFTER SPENDING last week here with 50,000 > others at the World Social Forum -- what the press has dubbed the > "anti-globalization summit" -- it would be easy to make fun of the > guy who was wearing a red-and-blue Che Guevara cape. Or the guy named Marc Cooper who was masquerading as a self-important LEFTIST WRITER FOR THE NATION MAGAZINE. > Or the clumps of balding, middle-aged Belgians and Danes with Che > T-shirts stretched across their paunches as they ambled about in > short pants, black socks, and sandals. Or the little bottles of local > rotgut booze for sale re-labeled with, yes, images of Che. Or the > crudely drawn and even more primitively translated wall propaganda > posters shrieking that the "Yankee state is worldwide center of > outrage, torture, strokes, [sic] bombardments, militar [sic] > interventions and slaughter of innocent millions." Or the scraggly > squads of "reporters" from various "indymedia" centers, frenetically > capturing one another on video- and audiotape that they earnestly > post on Web sites read only by themselves. -------- Are we beginning to sense a trend here? After everything that has been said about Cooper and Pacifica, are his fangs not dripping with contempt for the independent media. Of course, when you are an olf left authoritarian, the existence of a vibrant, indie left press is anethma to pricks who think that being a WRITER FOR THE NATION MAGAZINE has elevated them to some kind of Leftist rock star status. full: http://nuance.dhs.org/lbo-talk/0202/0521.html ------------- Or that the feverish rock-star welcoming rained on Noam Chomsky by an > auditorium full of screaming fans swarming for his autograph made you > cringe and wonder if the 73-year-old MIT professor would reciprocate > by tossing a sweat-soaked handkerchief out to the front row. Cooper's just jealous and he sounds just like David Horowitz here. That writer spot for Cooper at Front Page is getting warmer. > But to focus on any of the above would be misleading. Those antics > were strictly trivial and mostly amusing sideshows. This second > annual World Social Forum, organized as a grassroots alternative to > the elite World Economic Forum in New York, turned out to be a > refreshingly serious and sober five days of discussion, debate and > meditation over the meaning of the global-justice movement and where > it is heading in the post-9/11 world. It's all good to have things like the WSF, but there were people who came to New York last week to have that same discussion. > In other words, delightfully little of that burdensome, depressing > crapola that you could certainly expect when you lock up several > thousand American activists in a couple of big lecture halls for five > or six days. Cooper doesn't get around much, does he. He obviously missed the exicting National Conference on Organized Resistance which happened at American Univeristy several weeks ago. This was their fifth annual conference, which has grown to be so big that it has 6 concurrent tracks and over 1000 attendees. All of it is run by students. > The World Social Forum survived the entire week with > none of the usual circular firing squads our American left has become > so expert at organizing. No Women's Caucus, or African-American > Caucus, or Latino Caucus, or AsianPacific Islander Caucus, or LGBT > Caucus spontaneously formed to exhibit its "outrage" over the lack or > excess of -- fill in the blank -- within the Forum organization. > ------------- Mercifully, no gruesome game playing of Who's the Bigger Victim? I'm sure that many of us get tired of these excesses, but to dismiss these concerns liek Cooper has just demonstrates that he is a loudmouth white guy who doesn't have time for other voices than his own. Perhaps he can give up his slot at The Nation for writer who is a person of color. Cooper's contempt for the concerns of women and people of color suffuse this odious piece of writing. > No process-freak crybabies whining about too much hierarchy or too > many experts on the dais (I don't know about you, but when I sit for > hours at a stretch to hear a panel of speakers, they better damn well > be experts). What an arrogant fucker, this Cooper is. I'm sure that he thinks that having a platform filled with smart white guys is something that everybody can live with. Whining about hierarchy. Wanting more experts. I smell an authoritarian of the Old Left variety. Open up the windows folks! We've got a big white dinosaur in the room who just happens to be a WRITER FOR THE NATION MAGAZINE! -------> No trust-funder Black Blocers in ski masks claiming to > be smashing international capitalism by breaking the windows of a > Starbucks. Cooper should get a job with the NY Post, or perhaps as a press attache for Susan George. It's really pathetic to hear this stereotyping coming from a purported leftist. Trust fund black blocers? They don't exist. This is a real insult to the poor working class people who participate in the black bloc. The only black bloc in Porto Alegre was the anarchists from Brazil, Aregentina, and South America. I'm sorry, but we American black bloc types could barely afford to get to New York City. Who went to Brazil from America? Mostly the NGO folks. ----------> No Food Police forcing tofu lunches on you. Oh, poor Marc, he rejects free healthy food, for what? Cheetos out of the vending machine? > Or Nicotine > Nazis snuffing out your ciggies. And, praise Jesus, none of that damn > "twinkling" going on -- the infantile and wholly idiotic process now > in vogue among American activists whereby they raise their hands and > wiggle their fingers to show approval of what's being said in one of > their endless, process-laden, mind-deadening meetings. That's because those meetings are democratic and strive towards an egalitarian, non-hierarchical movement. Not exactly something that an old authoritarian dinosaur like Cooper would appreciate. > Maybe this World Social Forum conducted itself with such studious > maturity because it was organized and dominated not by Americans, but > by Latin Americans and Europeans. ------- This group probably included some of the Latin Americans that we were trying to bring to Washington last September for our counter-summit. It was a big fight to get some of the leftist men to realize that panels and plenaries filled with famous white American leftist men was hardly representative of the global movement. Of course, Cooper rejects this as he has explained above .------------ > The history of both groups has > taught them that politics is a deadly serious business and that you > better get it right. For when you screw up, the consequences can be > devastating and include getting tied to an iron mattress with an > electrode connected to your scrotum, or becoming one more number in, > say, the Holocaust. That sort of experience leaves little time for > sloshing around in the preferred American sandbox of identity > politics or fancying yourself as some sort of historic martyr because > the Seattle Police Department made you cry with a whiff of tear gas, > or confusing some dimwitted, mildly dangerous, yick-yack like John > Ashcroft for a real, live "fascist." ------------ Yeah, and some of us were taking a real risk last weekend by organizing a protest that the WEF was hoping would be unpopular. The police had made plans to use wtaer cannons against us if we got rowdy. The WEF and the ruling class set down a challenge to the American wing of the anti-globalization movement by holding the meeting in New York. Who stepped up to that challenge? The anarchists, socialists, and many other folks in the movement. Who jet-setted off to Brazil for the nice summer weather of the WSF? The NGOs, the liberals, and future Front Page Magazine writers like Marc Cooper -----------. > Writing in last week's The Nation magazine, one of the Forum > organizers, Paris-based author Susan George, confessed that after > September 11 she had hoped that the leadership of the wealthy > countries of the world would begin taking global inequity more > seriously. But, she wrote, that was naive. "Those who hold our > futures in their hands are not serious. They see no farther than the > noses of their bombers," George wrote. "Frightening though the > prospect may seem, citizens must accept the risk of being serious in > their place." >------ > WOW, WHAT A GREAT LINE: THE RISK OF BEING serious. --------- That challenge was > bravely assumed this past week here in Porto Alegre. Some 15,000 > "delegates," and an equal number or more of "guests," filled one > Forum venue after another, from 8 in the morning until late into the > night, listening, learning, reflecting, taking notes and asking smart > questions.-------  Attending a big conference is a low risk activity which can either be serious, boring, funny, educational or whatever. I have no problems with those who attended the conference, but scumbags like Cooper are beyond the pale. For him to make fun of American leftists who managed to organize 20,000 people on short notice to brave water cannons in New York City is pretty sick. --------- > The intellectual menu offered up was simply staggering. Hundreds of > seminars, conferences, workshops and panel discussions held > throughout the city filled a 155-page tabloid-size guide. Some > overflowed university auditoriums with 3,000 seats. Others took place > in small classrooms. If you didn't want to join the throngs > worshiping Chomsky, Again with the worries about Chomsky being worshipped. Marc Cooper, meet your new boss, David Horowitz. >you could go next door and hear from Indian > activist Vandana Shiva; or Philippine economist Walden Bello, who > dared to sketch a new, alternative international financial > architecture; or a panel of Argentine trade unionists; or Asian > water-rights activists; or some stunningly well-prepared > presentations from the Americans who did show up -- a wonderful > deconstruction of the WTO by Public Citizen's Lori Wallach or a > detailed critique of the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas by > Sarah Anderson of the Institute for Policy Studies. ------------- Ah so Marc is confirming that the chickens in the American NGO community did go down to Brazil. Well, at least Michael Dolan made it to New York. > Five times as many people attended this year's Forum as did last > year. The U.S. delegation was the fifth biggest, with more than 400 > representatives; last year, only a few showed up. And labor-backed > groups, such as Jobs With Justice, went out of their way to bring > along some of the more engaged U.S. activists and leave behind, well > ---------. . . the more self-absorbed wankers. The self-absorbed wankers who managed to organize a weekend of protest that drew 20,000 people. A group of self-absorbed wankers who stood up to the bullshit that our movement had gone away and organized something that belied that crap. Yes, the U.S. delegation was big. It was filled with moral cowards who are more worried about losing their funding than in taking any political risks. -----------------  > "I'm here because I've seen that our more successful campaigns happen > when we tie into what's called 'common rights,'" said Tracy Yassini, > associate director of the Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy, one > of the few Angeleno delegates. Her group has been effective in > fighting for a living wage in L.A. and Santa Monica. "Up to now I > haven't been involved in the anti-globalization campaigns," she said. > "But coming out of this Forum now, I feel I have an obligation to get > linked up." > > No blueprints or battle plans came out of the Forum. Everyone takes > back with them whatever they can from a week of intellectual > engagement. And the overall lesson that we always do better when we > stress what unites us rather than what divides us. > > This week's World Social Forum reminded me of what, in the first > place, attracted me to the left as a teenager in the '60s -- the > notion that you were connected to something much bigger and more > important than yourself. And for the first time in a long stretch, > this week's World Social Forum made it feel good again to still be > part of that. By the way, Marc Cooper is a WRITER FOR THE NATION MAGAZINE. ----------- << Chuck0 >> Infoshop.org -> http://www.infoshop.org/ Alternative Press Review -> http://www.altpr.org/ Practical Anarchy Online -> http://www.practicalanarchy.org/ Anarchy: AJODA -> http://www.anarchymag.org/ MutualAid.org -> http://www.mutualaid.org/ Factsheet 5 -> http://www.factsheet5.org/ AIM: AgentHelloKitty Web publishing and services for your nonprofit: Bread and Roses Web Publishing http://www.breadandrosesweb.org/ "Chuck Munson isn't like other protestors." -- CTV Louis Proyect Marxism mailing list: http://www.marxmail.org --------------- In "Paper Before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World" (Yale University Press, $45), Jonathan M. Bloom traces the history of paper, as well as of writing itself. Any such account involves the cultures that use paper, what they used it for, and how paper so shaped history that it can seem to be identical with civilization. Paper is vegetable fiber soaked to a pulp and dried in thin sheets. Its origins in China go back so far that they have become lost in myth. It was invented as wrapping (the paper bag precedes the New York Times, Chinese Kleenex precedes the Analects of Confucius, and fastidious Chinese aristocrats had toilet paper in 600 A.D.). For the first 3,000 years of writing, clay tablets, bamboo strips, and papyrus (a kind of paper) served for letters, government documents, and drawing. The craft of papermaking spread from China along the Great Trade Route. This diffusion was the work of western Islam, in Persia and Afghanistan. Although the Koran was piously transcribed only onto parchment (usually sheepskin), it was eventually written on paper as copies to be memorized by students. For centuries the Koran could not be printed, partly because the calligraphy in which it is written is an integral part of its beauty. Gibbon laments that we got gunpowder from China when we could have had paper and printing. When Gutenberg invented movable type, paper was still considered a tacky surface for writing. The hand-copied manuscript book on vellum was what the Middle Ages considered "a book." The Medicis would not allow a printed book into their libraries, even when Venetian, Dutch, and German presses were printing the most beautiful books the world has ever seen. Professor Bloom's study is focused on Islamic writing, as that is where paper evolved a culture of all but unimaginable splendor in calligraphy and the illuminated manuscript. Baghdad was the center of civilized writing: poetry, theology, science, history, cartography, medicine, and narrative prose—the Thousand and One Nights, for example. Paper Before Print is a sumptuous book: 8K by 11 inches, beautifully illustrated, lucidly written, and meticulously researched: its bibliography runs to thirteen pages. There are sidebars in the margins that go into erudite technologies. This is a book to put on your shelf beside Jean Seznec's The Survival of the Pagan Gods (1940 in French; 1953, English) and George Sarton's magisterial Introduction to the History of Science (1927). These three studies rectify our traditional notion that Western civilization jumped from Greece and Rome into the Renaissance and modern times. It was, rather, passed on to us by Islam, enriched and sophisticated, and on paper. (from a review in the March 2002 Harper's) -------------------------- Before turning to the matter at hand, I want to remind comrades why I write about such seemingly obscure topics like the Cherokee removal policy. In fact these questions are not just of historical interest. They reverberate today and have enormous implications for radicals throughout the New World. While posing important strategic and tactical questions, they also confront Marxism with unresolved theoretical issues that were inherited from the rather incomplete investigations that Marx pursued in his Ethnological notebooks. They also stick out like sore thumbs from Engels's "Origins of the Family, Private Property and the State." While written entirely in sympathy with the plight of precapitalist social formations, they carry with them the heavy legacy of Lewis Henry Morgan's ethnology. Despite his enlightened attitudes, Morgan could not really transcend his epoch. The notion of successive, linear stages of barbarism, savagery, slavery, feudalism, etc. carries the heavy stamp of 18th and 19th century social science. Marxism still has a challenge before it to fully engage with the remnants of indigenous societies without the heavy hand of "stagism". It needs to take into account the kind of work done by people like Boas, but in addition it has to come to terms with much more profound questions on the nature of "progress" and "civilization". A fully developed Marxism will, in my opinion, have to emerge as a critique of civilization in the sense of Thomas Patterson's 1997 MR book "Inventing Western Civilization" that I reviewed for Science and Society. Unfortunately, Science and Society, Monthly Review, Against the Current, New Left Review and New Politics--the premier general interest scholarly publications of the left--have not had a SINGLE issue dealing with indigenous society or struggles in the 10 years or so that I have been reading them. This reflects poorly on the left. The final chapter of Anthony Wallace's "The Long Bitter Trail" is packed with material that helps us to understand the intellectual and political framework that helped to shape the thinking of Marx and Engels on such questions. Marx and Engels both valued the work of Lewis Henry Morgan highly, who represents the best and the not so best aspects of social science and white progressivist thinking on the Indian question. As Hunter Gray pointed out, racism does not create inequality. Instead, it is the ideological encrustation that grows out of social inequality. Man feels the need to explain why one group suffers while another group prospers. It goes against the grain of Christian morality to say that the Indian had to be treated as less than human because he stood in the way of white greed. Instead, apologists figure out a way to explain genocide in terms of a neutral "science". The Indian had to be kicked out of Georgia because he was lower on the evolutionary scale rather than because he was sitting on land that could be used to grow cotton. In the 1840s and 1850s, one such "scientific" theory was based on polygenism, which asserted the racial inferiority of both Indians and Blacks. Philadelphia physician and phrenologist Samuel G. Morton wrote: "Was it not for this same mental superiority, these happy climes which we now inhabit would not be possessed by the wild and untutored Indian, and that soil which now rejoices in the hearts of millions of freemen, would not be overrun by the lawless tribes of contending barbarians." Morton's "theory" was based on the examination of hundreds of native skulls which he rated as more capacious than blacks, but less so than whites. Harvard naturalist Louis Agassiz, one of Morton's disciples, asserted that the black cranium housed a brain no larger than the "imperfect brain of a 7 month's infant in the womb of the white." With this kind of racism enshrined at places like Harvard University, the infant science of ethnology would be ill equipped to treat Indians as equal human beings. We discover from Wallace that there is a direct lineage between Lewis Cass and Lewis Henry Morgan. While less disposed to the sort of phrenological analyses found in Agassiz and company, the early ethnologists all subscribed to the notion that Indians had to be suppressed because their "hunting" based societies were a threat to the advancement of civilization. Henry R. Schoolcraft was an aide to Lewis Cass in Michigan, who studied Indian languages, customs and traditions in the interest of scientifically classifying a species that would soon be extinct. In 1845, Schoolcraft gave a lecture at the club Lewis Henry Morgan had organized in Rochester, New York for the scientific study of indigenous peoples. There is little doubt that Cass's influence was transmitted to Morgan through Schoolcraft who published "Notes on the Iroquois" in 1847. Indeed, Morgan invited Cass to become a member of his Rochester club of Iroquoianists. Showing Cass's influence, Morgan wrote in "League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee or Iroquois": "The passion of the red man for the hunter life has proved to be a principle too deeply inwrought, to be controlled by efforts of legislation. His government, if one was sought to be established, must have conformed to this irresistible tendency of his mind, this inborn sentiment; otherwise it would have been disregarded. The effect of this powerful principle has been to enchain the tribes of North America to their primitive state." Where Morgan differed from Cass--thankfully--was over the removal policy. He believed that as long as efforts were sustained to civilize the Indian, he could remain in his homeland. Of course, this assumed that civilization was required. Looking back over the past 150 years, one might say that the Cherokee had a much more advanced civilization than the white plantation owners who sought to remove them to what would become Oklahoma. Whatever differences Cass, Schoolcraft and Morgan had over this or another question of policy, they were united as members of and in identifying with the intellectual agenda of the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology, which persisted well into the 20th century. In this edifice, the notion of progressive stages of cultural evolution held sway. And it was the theoretical orientation of the BAE that eventually shaped legislation that would sustain the genocidal practices of the previous three centuries and which continues today. One Smithsonian researcher wrote the introduction to a policy study of Indian land claims, which strongly supported the following words that originally appeared in an 1823 Supreme Court ruling on Indian land titles: "discovery [by Europeans] gave an exclusive right to extinguish the Indian title of occupancy, either by purchase or by conquest . . . We will not enter into the controversy, whether agriculturists, merchants, and manufacturers, have a right on abstract principle, to expel hunters from the territory they possess, or to contract their limits . . . The tribes of Indians inhabiting this country were fierce savages, whose occupation was war, and whose subsistence was drawn chiefly from the forest." Unless Marxism finds a way to disassociate itself from any expressions that even faintly reflect such sentiments, it surely has no future in this hemisphere. -- Louis Proyect, lnp3?X0040;panix.com on 02/28/2002 Marxism list: http://www.marxmail.org ------------------------ I do think a lot of racism is cognitive dissonance in action. When there are patent contradictions between facts vs belief, belief vs emotions/interests, or emotions/interests vs facts there is dissonance in need of some kind of resolution--not only for personal psychological reasons, but also for social structures of accumulation/expanded reproduction reasons. In the conditions of oppression faced by Indians--and other "minorities" who are "invisible"--many of the concentrated expressions and raw contradictions/instruments of oppression of capitalism and capitalist imperatives are naked, open and quite revealed--there is little of the "velvet glove" covering the iron fist. In this arena, there is fertile ground not only for exposing the barbarism of capitalism or radicalizing Indians, there is also fertile ground for radicalizing non-Indians who fail to see the barbarism of capitalism in their own lives or spheres of existence but can be made to see it all when exposed to Indian Country and the realities there--where capitalism is quite open, naked and openly barbaric in ways that the non-Indian world does not experience unless it is all coming down. Jim C. ------------- Louis wrote: This is a crucial point. Wallace argues that the state of Georgia decided to move ahead with Indian removal--with Jackson's blessing--shortly after the Cherokee began to assert its nationhood: >>The economic progress and increasing literacy of the so-called Civilized Tribes was bad enough in the eyes of Southern whites. But worse than all this, in Georgia's eyes, was a change in the form of government adopted by the Cherokees in emulation of federal political institutitions [which I might add where influenced strongly by the Iroquois constitution]. In 1817, the Cherokees had established a bicameral legislature, a chief executive, a judiciary, and a small army [and without having read Lenin!]. The legislature passed dozens of laws regulating marriage, the tribal treasury, the whiskey trade, legal contracts, and so forth. And in 1827, that legislature adopted a new, written constitution adopted a new, written constitution (including a bill of rights), modeled after the Constitution of the United States. This constitution asserted that the Cherokee nation was "sovereign and independent."<< Louis Proyect Marxism mailing list: http://www.marxmail.org In the debates of the U.S. Congress just prior to ending "Treaties" in 1871 and calling all future "agreements" with Indian nations just that--"agreements"--and refusing to use the term "treaty", there was an explicit recognition that even under international law at the time, as well as under the U.S. Constitution itself ( Article I Section 10 and Article VI Section 2) that treaties are only covenants between sovereign nations and the mere construction and signing of a Treaty implied recognition of the sovereignty and independence (and later right to self-determination) and nationhood of the treating parties. The U.S. Government sought to summarily wipe out nationhood, sovereignty and independence of Indigenous nations by simply refusing to call treaties treaties rather summarily calling them "agreements." International law, unlike domestic law--particularly that based on English common law--evolves and is codified much more through "customary practices" and treaties than through constitutional interpretations, treaties, statutes, judicial decisions and stare decisis (case law) or executive/administrative orders/fiat as is the case in domestic law. Further, according to Article VI Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution: Treaties shall be considered supreme law of the land and the judges of every state shall be bound thereby ANYTHING IN THE CONSTITUTION OR THE LAWS OF ANY STATE TO THE CONTRARY NOTWITHSTANDING.(paraphrase). After World War I there was talk of putting the Germans and Turks on trial for war crimes, crimes against "minority" populations etc based on emerging international conventions and laws governing warfare, treatment of captives etc. The so-called Western powers knew very well, and explicitly laid it out that they too could be subject to the same precedents they were contemplating setting against the Germans and Turks. That is the major reason no war crimes trials developed. In 1924, later codified in 1928 the U.S. passed the Indian Citizenship Act summarily declaring/imposing without consent, "citizenship" on American Indians. Further, where the early Marshall decisions had referred to Indian "nations" (assumed to be dependent and captive with very limited sovereignty), by the 1870s there was less and less use of the term "nations" and more and more use of the term "Tribes" in reference to whole groups of Indians. Canadas also began the same process in the 1920s but did not consumate full "citizenship" until the 1960s. The intent was clear and it was the same intent as that of the nazis who declared that what we do with "our own" minorities within "our" borders is not a matter of international law--or indeed is not anyone else's business; "we" have a sovereign "right" to do genocide. They were also aware that the concept of "Tribes" being sovereign and coverable under international law was not to be found in international law--said to be laws governing contacts, associations, treaties, protections and behaviors of "nations". At Nuremberg, Goering in his lengthy and ranting testimony, along with Streicher, made explicit reference to the fact that the American and Canadian experiences/histories with respect to slaughtering Indians had been the major inspiration for Hitler and the nazis vis-a-vis possible scopes, rationales for and even methods of genocide against the targeted populations by the nazis--he asked why the Western powers with Indigenous populations were not also on trial for their own genocide. This caused the western powers to attempt to shut him up (and even the Soviet judges joined in fearing they had their own problems along these lines). Recently the U.S. government has again been using the term "nations"; their purpose is as disingenuous as when they ceased using the term nations using instead "Tribes". With the grotesque conditions in Indian Country and failures and betrayals of "Trusteeship", they are attempting to dump more and more of the burdens--and blame--back on the Indian nations from failures of the federal trusteeship relationships under the banner of again limited sovereignty--"you want to be a nation and 'sovereign', we'll let you go this far and any failures are your responsibility and yours to fix. That is why--partly--it is not simply a matter of semantics of Tribes versus Nations. Jim Craven ~~~~~~~ ----------- Tribes and Nations From: ermadog Subject: Tribes and Nations Date: Wed, 27 Feb 2002 02:27:40 -0800 Tribal Social Structures Domnal said: This insight also offers an understanding of the nature of revolutionary behaviour in small rural villages. That it was organised on familial lines, that splits over policy occured along family fault-lines, that bad-practices could come about due to nepotism and the like, that outsiders are never trusted to the second generation. All these things combine with petty localised community loyalties to produce potential difficulties (and also go some way in explaining the strengths) of the movement on a localised scale. I offer this analysis as I feel an understanding of this underlying societal structure is of key importance in enabling theorists to make realistic criticisms of macro-scale strategy. My Reply: I would like to thank you for this post. It illustrates well the dangers of attachment to the parochialism of village life. You have shown us how community ties (coming together for births, etc.) can obscure the existence of deeper divisions. You have also alluded to the hidden decision making process within closed societies (nepotism, in most cases by the Old Families of the village.) The ant-democratic nature of politics in village life is too often ignored by those who like to romanticise the strong sense of community identity in rustic society. Decision-making along lines of personal relationships is not democratic, especially when those relationships are formed by accident of birth. The danger posed by this type of romanticisation lies in the potential for reification of kin-based affiliation behaviours. When tribal, village, or family law lay down the rules for human behaviour, the illustration of which is the function of myth, these familial duties become more important than the individuals, whose worth is judged by the fidelity with which he hews to the party line. These relationships, because they are based on blood, are seen as part of the natural world and therefore stand as Absolutes against the will of the individual. It is within family that we first learn that we can be bought: that we first learn obligation. We discover that, because our families produced us, we are obligated to them from birth. They give us sustenance and life skills, and we must therefore give what they have predetermined is owing. Once we are taught to accept these basic facts of life, we can be coerced or manipulated into following any authority who knows what buttons to push. However, we are not programmable machines. The best laid plans of the status quo don't always work out. Pre-class societies have very limited means of controlling their individual members. Since Marshal Sahlins is a Louis Approved Marxist Anthropologist(Tm), let's turn to him for some insights. This is from _Stone Age Economics_, 1972: Stoneage Economics "Instead of unifying society by sacrificing the autonomy of its producing groups, the division of labor here, as it is principally a division of labor by sex, sacrifices the unity of society to the autonomy of its producing groups. Nor is any higher cause entertained by the household's access to productive resources, or again by the economic priorities codified in domestic pooling. Viewed politically, the DMP is a kind of natural state. Nothing within this infrastructure of production obliges the several household groups to enter into compact and cede each one some part of its autonomy. As the domestic economy is in effect the tribal economy in miniature, so politically it underwrites the condition of primitive society - society without a Sovereign. In principle each house retains, as well as its own interests, all the powers that are wanted to satisfy them. Divided thus into so many units of self-concern, functionally uncoordinated, production by the domestic mode has all the organization of the so many potatoes in a certain famous sack of potatoes." "That is in essence the primitive structure of production. But of course not in appearance. In appearance, primitive society is a poor likeness of primordial incoherence. Everywhere the petty anarchy of domestic production is counterposed by larger forces and greater organization, institutions of social-economic order that join one house to another and submit all to a general interest. Still, these grand forces of integration are not given in the dominant and immediate relations of production. On the contrary, precisely as they are negations of domestic anarchy, they owe part of their meaning and existence to the disorder they would suppress. And if in the end anarchy is banished from the surface of things, it is not definitively exiled. It continues, a persistent disarray lurking in the background, so long as the household remains in charge of production." p. 95 [Note well! Disorder and anarchy of the domestic unit is *suppressed* by the tribal unity! This tribal unity is a fragile thing. JC] He quotes Carneiro: I would like to argue that a factor of greater importance has been the ease and frequency of village fissioning for reasons not related to subsistence[that is, to techniques of subsistence]... In the facility with which the phenomenon occures suggests that villages may seldom get a chance to increase in population to the point at which they begin to press hard on the carrying capacity of the land. The centrifugal forces that cause villages to break apart seem to reach a critical point well before this happens. What the forces are that lead to village fission falls outside the present dicussion. Suffice it to say that many things may give rise to factional disputes within a society, and that the larger the community the more frequent these disputes are likely to be. By the time a village in the Tropical Forest attains a population of 500 or 600 the streses and strains within it are probably such that an open schism, leading to the hiving off of a dissident faction, may easily occur. If internal political controls were strong, a large community might succeed in remaining intact despite factionalism. But chieftanship was notoriously weak among most Amazonian villages, so that the political mechanisms for holding a growing community together in the face of increasingly strong divisive forces were all but lacking (Carneiro, 1968, p. 136). "My point is that primitive society is founded on an economic disconformity, a segmentary fragility that lends itself to and reverberates particular local causes of dispute, and in the absence of "mechanisms for holding a growing community together" realizes and resolves the crisis by fission." p. 98 The strong sense of community that romantics admire is in fact a human artifact called religion. It generates both the fears that inhibit individuals from breaking group solidarity, and the sense of awe that causes individuals to be greatfull for the benefits of membership in the group (into which we were born purely by chance, don't forget.) Pre-class societies solve the problem of real and actual disunity by means of the fissioning process mentioned above. Class societies restrict the movement of individuals so that they are forced to live with irresolvable conflict, lurking beneath an apparently idyllic surface. Religion serves to elevate what would otherwise be naturally arising emotional bonds to stand reified above society as a whole, where they are safeguarded by fictive dead ancestors operating in an imagined spirit world. Throughout the period of the Enlightenment, and well into the 20th. C., romanticists and folklorists mined the cultural remains of what Engels called "the ancient bunk" still extant in the villages and remote corners of Europe. This is a testament not so much to the strength of community spirit as to failure of various ruling classes to incorporate the needs of the toiling masses into their own cultural projects. We know that the early Christianization of Europe had such little impact on rural Europeans that the non-Christians were referred to by a term - "pagan" - that means "rustic" (in a disparaging sense, such as "yokel"). We see that centuries after conversion, kings still counted their descendance from pre-Christian deities and retained Druid counsellors at court. Tribal ways lingered on for centuries. In England, the Anglo-Saxon customs of frankpledge and hue-and-cry were fostered by the newly conquering Normans as a means of social control. The ancient Celtic funerary custom of holding boisterous wakes for the dead lingered on till well into the 14th. C. (and in Ireland, into the 20th. C.) With the advent of the great Celtic Revival, we can see that an impressive amount of this old culture has been preserved. (Who knew there were so many precursors to the Great Pipes? And such a wide range of musical styles?) And in a documentary last year, I saw the last two remaining singers of a 3,000 year Punic dialect. They had no idea what the words meant, had no one to ask for the meaning, and had no one to pass them on to. Has any of these people preserved their ancient tribal "spirit of egalitarianism", which Louis Proyect asserts *must* have existed? The strongest case for preservation of European tribal culture can be made in Ireland. There are a number of historical reasons for this, starting with the failure of Rome to conquer the island. We know from the Roman historians that Ceasar adopted a deliberate policy of destruction of the Druids caste. He recognized that they were the only social element that had the potential to act as a unifying principle for the Celtic tribes. Without an organizing principle, the tribes were never able to present a unified opposition to the Roman army. (Except sporadically, as with Vercingetorix). The Roman Empire collapsed before any serious attempt was made to conquer Ireland. Thus, the Druids were able to put up stiff competition when the Christian missionaries came calling centuries later. A tremendous outpouring of culture was recorded when these latter introduced secular writing methods to the Celtic laity. (For religious reasons, the sacred knowledge of the Druids was never committed to writing) This was a seminal event in the establishment of modern Irish culture, giving us a written record against which to compare the oral tradition.(See my post from last summer "On the Reliability of Oral History".) According to Crossan, the oral tradition died out during his lifetime. I suspect that what Donal is seeing is the customary habit of small lineage groups, unchanged for millenia. The situation was very different in most of North America. Here, once again, I turn to a Louis Approved Marxist Anthropologist(Tm) for advice. This is what Anthony Wallace has to say about the Iroquois (from _ The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca Nation_: The tribes, or nations, had only an uncertain coherence in political matters, and readily split into factions, which might even remove geographically from one another and beome permanent subdivisions. The Seneca, in particular, were divided into two groups: an eastern, pro-British group, and a western, pro-French group (the Geneseo Seneca). The Seneca national council met only occasionally, in the great council house at Canacadea or at another of the nations' towns as circumstances at the time might dictate. The membership of these tribal councils seems to have been simply the sum of all the chiefs of the village councils. [Here follows some discussion of consensus decision-making.] ... Some of the tribal (i.e. village) chiefs and council speakers were chosen as perennial liasion men for dealings between colonial officials, like Sir William Johnson, and their village, factional, tribal, or even the Nations constituencies. They were in this role sometimes referred to as "chiefs to do business," and most of the practical work of administration of policy and formulation and communication of issues was handled by these men rather than by the councils themselves. They were often better known to the whites than the hereditary, or sachem, chiefs. Still, the tribe was essentially not a political organization but a group of villages that spoke the same language. I will not comment on the consensus decision-making - we all hear enough about that when Louis lambastes the anti-globalization anarchists with their affection for consensus. I will, however, comment on an obvious difference between the aboriginal societies and that of the Celts, with their great Druidic colleges. There is simply no evidence that any of the North American tribes had reached this level of development. The caste societies of the Pacific Northwest lacked even the rudimentary government sketched out above for the Iroquois. The closest comparison with the Druids would be the council memorizer, who memorized resolutions of previous councils. The point in all this, in case you're wondering, is that collective identity based on accident of birth must of necessity suppress division within the group. Pre-class societies handle irreconcilable differences through the process of fission; class societies handle them through conscious suppression of emotion. Collective identity based on free and open decision making, can only evolve under conditions of socialism. Community spirit is a motherhood and apple pie issue; and, as with patriotism, it hides a multitude of sins. JC