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examining their sexual regulations I found that when the Babylonians, Hellenes,
Romans, end Teutons first appeared in history, they regulated the relations
between the sexes in a similar manner, which I called absolute monogamy
1 We also find tracesof the institution among the early Sumerians, end
there is muchreason to believe that they also were at one time absolutely
monogamous. The ba'al marriage which the Arabs adopted in thegenerations
which immediately preceded the birth of Mohammedconformed to the same pattern;
end the idee of absolute monogamyhas been preserved in modern times by
those Christian sects which have placed a literal interpretation on the
opinions of Paul. Paul speethis early years in a Romano-Jewish environment;
in each case the ideas he absorbed were those of absolute monogamy, which
consequently became the rule in England, particularly amongdissenters,
after the sixteenth century. In the centuries thatimmediately preceded
the sixteenth century, canon law prevailed. This was quite a different
affair , not only from the po t -reformation law but also from the law
that prevailed before the Norman Conquest.
It is strange how the idee of absolute monogamy repeats itselfthrough the centuries. There is no question of the various societies influencing one another. In the course of 5,ooo years absolutemonogamy has been adopted by many different societies, in different climates, and at different times. Thousands of years and thousands of miles separate the events, between which there is no apparent connection; end the behaviour which has accompanied or followed the adoption of the institution is equally noteworthy. When the evidence is complete we find monogamy has always been followed by a type of social behaviour which I call expansive. Expansive energy has never been displayed by a society that inherited a modified monogamy or a form of polygamy. When the evidence is complete we see that an expansive society has always adopting absolute monogamy without displaying expansive energy. Whenever the evidence is complete we see that a society, on arriving in the historical arena, was regulating the relations between the sexes in this particular mannen
By expansive energy I meen the urge to expand beyond the boundaries of a habitat. Ardent men begin to explore new lands 83 which hitherto have remained unvisited because the necessary urge to explore has been absent; commerce is extended; foreign settlements are established, colonies founded. If less energetic societies bar the way to its expansion, the expansive society subdues them, occupies their lands, and demands tribute.
This kind of behaviour must be distinguished from what is sometimes called "aggressivity." An expansive society only takes aggressive action if another society lies in the way of its expansion. The voyages of Captain Cook and of the strip Duff are examples of expansive energy, but their purpose was not aggressive. (I suppose they brought no guns so no-one could ever misunderstand them either eh?) In the past most expansive societies have had to fight for their new lands, but there are some examples of societies which have not been compelled to do so.
Parenthetically, so far as social behaviour is concerned, I have found in human records no support for the suggestion that aggressivity is due to compulsory continence. If cattle-raids, head-hunting, and bloody conflicts between related groups are examples of "aggressivity,_such aggressivity cannot be due to compulsory continence, because many societies which behaved in that manner have suffered from few sexual checks, end sometimes from none at all. The Masai are an example.
When we examine the subsequent behaviour of the expansive societies I am talking about, we find that it varied accordingly as they preserved or discarded their absolute monogamy. But there is no record of any society preserving its absolute monogamy for very long. If the institution appears to have survived longer in some cases than in others, this is because it had been adopted in succession by different groups within the society Leaving aside this complication for a moment, we find that every society which has adoptedabsolute monogamy has been dissatisfied with it, and has either abandoned it in favour of polygamy or revised the whole method of regulating the relations between the sexes. The former is what happened among the Arabs; the latter was the case among the other five societies.
When absolute monogamy is the rule marriage is not a unionbetween two equal partners teut a means whereby a man securesdomestic labour end heirs of his brood. His marital end parentalauthority is complete; in the eyes of the law he alone is an entity. Awife is not permitted to withhold conjugal rights from the man towhom she was married as a virgin; end when absolute monogamy is................. 94 ..................cannot be regarded as scientific data of the first quality. Science is the study of sense-impressions, and like other scientists, a social scientist must draw his inductive conclusions from sense-observations alone. But, as again I pointed out in Chapter 1, unlike achemist or a physicist, he cannot observe all the evidence himselfend he has to rely on other men to a great extent. His raw material consists of their descriptions of what they have observed. That is why in social science the trustworthiness of the observer is a factor of paramount importance.
Since I will cover whether or not there was any relation between the checking of the sexual impulses and a display of the energy which makes civilization, I chose as my cultural criterion the attitude of the people towards the external world. I knew that all of them saw in the external world the manifestation of a power or powers, with whichthey bied to maintain a right relation; end I found that, according to the steps they took to maintain this right relation, they divided themselves into three classes, which I called zoistic, manistic, and deistic.
Th esocieties that behaved deistically were those that erected temples to gods. If they wanted the rain to fall after a drought, or the sun to shine after a too great fall of rein; or if they suffered from some unaccountable affliction, social or individual; or if they wished to receive help in some exceptional enterprise, they went to a temple and appeased the anger, or solicited the favour, of the power manifest therein.
I defined a temple as a roofed building, other than a grave-house,in which a power in the universe manifeste itself, and which is specially erected and maintained in order that a right relation may be preserved with that power, the building itself being of such a size that a man can stand upright inside it.
Under similar circumstances the people I called manistic behaved in a different way. When they suffered in a manner they did not understand they went to the grave of, or to a shrine that hadbelonged to, a powerful dead man. Over his grave a little hut might be built. Alternatively, a relic of his might be preserved end a hutmade to contain it. Or there might be no hut but a shrine where his spirit was supposedly manifest. This shrine might be embellished with a small altar or a fireplace; a little wall or fence might be builtround it. But the elaboranions were not greater than this; and 95 manistic people thought they had done a right end proper and sufficient thing when they had propitiated or conciliated the deed manby placing an offering or offerings in the hut or shrine.
The societies that behaved zoistically neither erected temples norpaid any kind of post-funeral attention to their deed. In any unusual,incomprehensible event or phenomenon they saw the manifestation ofa power which they regarded as both dangerous and desirable. Thepower was manifest in any stone, animal, or tree of uncommon typeor unusual appearance, end in any object the nature of which was not understood. Any man whose manner of birth or life was abnormal was credited with its possession end therefore regarded with awe and admiration. We call him a magician. A sickness which came within the normal experience of the people was treated in what they regarded as a normal manner; this was the case among manistic and deistic people alsof but among zoistic societies an unaccountable sickness was ascribed neither to the anger of a powerful dead man or to the displeasure of a god, but eitber to the power -hypothesized as responsible for all unaccountable things or to a rnagician who, possessing that power, had used it for his own purposes. Under those circumstances we call tbe rnagician a wizard or witch.
If tbere was-a drought, or rain came too much zoistic people didn ot placate the anger of any dead man, nor make an offering in any temple. instead, tbey asked a magician to create the needed shower or to make tbe sun shine. Alternatively, a similar payment was placed at tbe foot of an unusually shaped tree, before an uncommonly shaped- stone, or in some otber place where the power in the universe was thought to be manifest.
If they were sick, or suffered some other form of unaccountable misfortune, they behaved in the same way.
The native word that denoted the strange quality in unusual, incomprehensible things used to be translated as spirit or as spirits. On these translations Tylor founded his theory of animism, which bag been broadcast through our lecture hallsto such an extent that enthusiastic travellers and administrators have searched for traces of it, and, of course, have found it; for they have soon discovered the all-anbracing word to which I have alluded and have at once concluded that this was the word for spirit. The translation is unfortunate, for it has created the impression that the power in the universe was ubiquitous end that all kinds of afflictions were ascribed to it. This was not the case. The power was only manifest in unusual places and things. Only uriusud forms of afbiction were ascribed to it. The wordspirits also creates the impression that the power was...................102................. the defining fine. This is where the Shilluk end the Bakitara end theSamoans appear to have been. They were in the act of changingtheir behaviour from one state to another.
Having said this, I have no more comments to make here on thechart of evidence. There cen be no doubt that, when an inductivescientist considers the evidence, he is compelled to induce that, asthe psychologists have conjectured, there is a close relation between the checking of the sexual impulses end human behaviour.
Now, on being examined, each of the three uncivilized methods of behaviour, zoistic, manistic, end deistic, reveals' itself as a state of energy, as defined. Moreover, the state is definitely a mental state, which itself cannot be directly observed but which is manifest in the behaviour of the society. I am not going to debate here whether uncivilized men think as they think because they act as they act,or whether they act as they act because they think as they think. But I am confident that they cannot change their behaviour without thinking first. And I have published the nature of the mental road along which, it seems to me, a zoistic society travels when it becomes manistic or deistic. The change is a mental change, end, the evidence tells us, due to a checking of the sexual impulses. The mental energy itself is no more apparent to our senses than is the 'material' energy that lies behind the material universe. In each case the existence of the energy is a deduction from our observation of perceptible events. But it must be there, and we can summarize the historical and anthropological evidence to which I have referred by saying that in the past, according to the way in which they have regulated the relations between the sexes, human societies have arrived into one or other of six states of energy, three lesser, three greater. '
The first state of energy occurs when the society has, for at leastthree generations, allowed its young people to satisfy in a directmanner such sexual impulses as they have. In this state of energy thepeople behave in the manner I have called zoistic. ` ''`
The second state of energy occurs when the social habits inflict anirregular or occasional pre-nuptial continence. In this state of energythe society behaves in the manner I have called manistic.
The third state of energy occurs when the society, or some groupswithin ft, insist on girls being virgins when they marry. In this state ofenergy the society behaves in the manner I have called deistic. 103 There are the three states of lesser energy, each of whichproduces a definite cultural condition. If unmarried girls are compelled to be pre-nuptially continent, pre-nuptial sexual opportunity is at a minimum. Sexual opportunity can only be reduced further by limiting it post-nuptially.
If a married woman, having been married as a virgin, is compelledto confine her sexual qualities to one man, end if this man cannothave other vvives unless his wife is faithless, the society gets into the fourth state of energy. In this state of energy the society still behaves deistically but it becomes expansive. This is the state of energy in which all the most energetic historicdsocieties were at the begirming of their historical career. Each reduced its sexual opportunity to a minimum by the adoption of what I have called absolute monogamy.
But this method of regulating the relations between the sexes has never been tolerated for very long. If, after suffering it, a society permits its males to have more than one sexual partner, it has ceased to display expansive energy; but it has remained deistic if it has -continued to demand pre-nuptial chastity. It has also enjoyed the fruits of its conquests for so long as it has had the energy to keep the usufructs, but if it has come into contact with a more energetic society, it has been robbed of its sovereignty and conquered in its' turn. If it has relaxed its sexual regulations to a further extent it has collapsed By deduction I consider that tliis is wht happened among -the early Persians, Macedonians, Huns, and Mongols. At one time too, the Yoruba appear to have been expansive; but when we met them they were less energetic, though still the most virile people in West Africa. On the other hand, a society has retained its sexual opportunityat a minimum, or if, after the decline of the first dominants, a new group has appeared, preserving the old customs dwarded by thosedominante, this society has arrived into the fifth state of energy,which produces the behaviour called rationalistic.)
The sixth state of energy, which is the state of productive energy based on scientific research, appears when sexual opportunity is maintained at a minimum for a still longer period. If you ask me why this is so, I reply that I do not know. No scientist does. Do you know why water becomes steam when you heat it? Do you know why a radio-active element descends in the periodic table as it radiates energy?...........
106.............side in the same geographical environment, and have suffered anequal amount of compulsory continence, they have displayed anequal amount of energy; the pattern of their ideas end behaviour hasbeen the same. And this is also true if the societies have been ofdifferent racial extraction, whatever the geographical environment inwhich they lived. But, if two societies have suffered an unequalamount of compulsory continence, they have displayed an unequalamount of energy end the pattern of their ideas end behaviour hasbeen different. And this is true whether they were of the same or of different racial extraction, and whether they lived in the same or adifferent geographical environment. Everywhere, anywhere the same amount of compulsory continence has produced the same amount of energy and the same cultural state. Different amount of compulsory continence has produced different amount of energy enddifferent cultural states.
The age we live in, as I have said before, is a rationalistic one, out of which a scientific age may or may not emerge; end we must alwaysbe on our guard against the making of false assumptions due to our rationalistic traditions. The difference between a rationalistic and a scientific thinker lies in this: the former expresses personal opinions; the latter draws his conclusions solely from a study of the past.
A chemical substance like water is not only an event which has acertain structure; it is in a certain state of energy. lf the molecules that constitute: it are in a different state of energy they behave in a different way and appear as ice or steam. Similarly, a human society is not merely a structure of human groups; the groups are in a certain state of energy and behave accordingly. Moreover, if they are energized, they begin to behave in a different way'from what they did before.
In ice the molecules cohere rigidly. When energy in the form ofheat is applied to them, they move apart, end the ice charges its stateend becomes water. The ice has no choice in the matter. Whenenergized it cannot help changing its state; nor has it any choice concerning the state into which it must arrive. And it becomes waterbecawe it is part of its inherent nature, when energized, to behave inthat mannen Similarly, if a human society is in a state of little or noenergy, the groups of which it is composed cling closely together, have uniform mental processes, and behave the same way. A zoistic society is like that. But if the social regulations are changed end begin to inflict a small amount of compulsory continence, a small amount of human energy is producedthe emotional conflicts which arise in the hearts of those whose sexual impulses have been checked by external influences. The individuals who suffer these conflicts then move apart, end between them and the other members of the society there is a cultural distance due to the mental energy they display. Towards the external universe they preserve a different attitude from that of their zoistic brethren, and, forming themselves into a new group, they constitute a new manistic stratum, the presence of which qualifies the society for inclusion in the manistic category. Under the influence of their emotional conflicts. The members of this stratum cannot help behaving in a different manner; nor have-they any choice in the manner they adopt. This depends on the extent of their energy, that is, on the extent to which they develop their inherent powers. And they behave in the observed manrier because it is part of the inherent nature of the human organism to behave like that under those conditions. When we see a piece of water alongside a piece of ice, we have no difficulty in perceiving the difference between them. Similarly, we have no difficulty in telling whether a society is behaving zoistically or manistically. But the difference between the iceand thewater is merely the difference between two states of energy; the molecules are the same in each-case. The only thing is that they are behaving differently. Similarly, a manistic society consists of the samefundamental units as a zoistic society. The only thing is that these human groups, or molecules, are behaving differently end thedifference in their behanour is due to a difference in their energy.
If the molecules that constitute the event we call water are subjected to the influence of more energy, they move more freely still Again, they have no choice in the matter; nor cen the change intheir behaviour be any other than the observed one. And if the water is continually energized, it gets hotter end hotter boils, and then becomes steam. The molecules are the same in each case, teut the energy applied to them in the form of heat makes them move furtherend further apart.
The same thing happens to a human society when we reduce its sexual opportunity again. Ideas, groups and behaviour alter and a deistic stratum soon appears. .......exploration.......individualization.....
......conquest..........colonization.......rationalization........boiling kettle.....flowing over......
Hopousians, by virtue of their constant display of energy, will constantly
transform their cultural tradition and change their positionin the cultural
scale. Analogically Hopousian society and uranium are alike in theit constant
emission of energy and in their consequent transformation of their state;
the difference is that whereas the radio-substance descends in the periodic
table the Hopousians will ascending the cultural scale.
As we have seen, the cultural scale, like the periodic table, has an isotopie character. Just as the nuclei of atoms in a molecule may vary in size without affecting the chemical propertjes of the substance, so in a hurnan group the number of hangers-on may vary between wide limits without affecting the cultural state of the group.
The chemical propertjes of the molecule depend on the number of
sentinel electrons in orbit round the nuclei of its atoms; similarly
the cultural standerds of a human group are controlled by the individuals who lead it. These are in a small minority, end they db not form part of the mess. To be leaders they must be mentally separated from it, and it is a man's act in separating himself from the mass that makes it possible for a cultural change to occur. If, having separated himself, he remains without followers, he wanders forlorn through life in a state of mental loneliness, probably ridiculed and thought med. He may even be thought dangerous, perhaps so dangerous that he is executed. But if his ideas express or harmonize with the conscious or unconscious desires of other men, he is hailed as their leiader and a new group is formed; the cultural change takes place if this group becomes strong enough to dominate the society.
The order of events is important. The society first produces the outstanding unorthodox individual; then the group forms around him. A cultural change cannot take place in any other way than this.
It seems, then, that if the Hopousians are to rise continually in the cultural scale Hopousian society must continually throw up unorthodox individuals round whom new groups will collect. It must also continually produce plenty of individuals anxious to join, though perhaps incapable of reading, such groups. It must also produce enough orthodox individuals to ensure the stability of the society while these things are going on.
My conclwion is that we must construct Hopousian society in such a way as to encourage, or at any rate impose no handicap on, the expression of unorthodox opinions or theories. Orthodoxy 140 must never be in a position to smother unorthodoxy. Diversity must be encouraged, uniformity disparaged. Fanatics must not be silenced. If their fellow-citizens have no sympathy with them they will not matter any more than a fly matters to the elephant on which it crawls. If the fanatics' ideas harmonize with the consicious or unconscious desires of their fellows, new groups will emerge, and the formation of these groups must not be interfered with. If the groups are week, they will soon disintegrate; if strong, they will become an important part of the Hopowian structure. If strong enough to dominate the society they will abolish the old tradition endcreate a new one according to the nature of their ideas. At first regarded as fanatical, these ideas will soon become familiar, and,when a new generation has been bom end become adult, the new tradition will be taken as much for granted as was once the old one. This principle is fundamental, end must apply to the nature of all Hopousian groups, social, politica!, end economie. If the groups do not possess this character Hopousian society will not display thegreatest possible energy and the structure will not fulfil the purpose for which it is being designed.
APPENDIX VII Notes on Hopousian Economic Structure and Usury
We have seen how the Hopousian system of commodity-exchange works. Trusty men do not need to borrow money. Money was invented for the convenience of men and is due to be paid to the producer of a utility when he has found a customer ready to give in exchange for it another utility for thesame exchange-value. This act of exchange promotes both utilities to the status of commodities. But in Hopousia the customer is not always asked to pay at once the money expressing the value of the commodity he wants. If he is judged to be trusty he is given credit for it. When a cheque currency is wed there is an inexhaustible supply of money; and in Hopousia it is issued to producers when appropriate need arises. Producers receive the full moneyvalue of their productions when they have delivered them to customers judged to be trusty; these are given credit for the money, the money being specially issued in each case. Whether the commodities are productive or unproductive, the same procedure is followed. The goods are supplied on credit and paid for gradually. As soon as they are consumed, that is, at the expiration of their estimated "life" (which is designedly made to correspond with the period over which the payment extend), they are discarded and others are purchased on the same terms In this way the wheels of industry are kept oiled production is m maintained there is no use of worn-out commodities; no usury. No charge is made for the use of the issued money;every producer and purchaser is regarded as conferring a benefit on the community by his display of human energy. Besides, the issue of the money costs nothing. All that the contracting parties have to pay is a sum to the Gild of Bankers who keep their accounts and clear their cheques. But there is nothing exceptional in that; for every other person is treated in the same way, whether he enjoys the use of issued money or not. Incidentally, we pay for such services-umder our economic system.
I emphasize that money
is only issued to trusty men. Men who are notjudged by their fellow-citizens
to be trusty do not receive any credit inHopousia. I have already explained
why this is so; but I mention it againbycause in Hopousia money-lending
exists, and it may be said that I am splitting hairs when I say that usury
is not part of the economic structure.Let us then be clear about it. There
is no objection in Hopousia to any manor group of men lending money to
an untrustworthy citizen. The lendersmay charge a fee for the accommodation.
For the protection of fools,however, there exists a money-lending law,
as there is among us, whichlimits the amount of profits that money-lenders
may make in any singletrans- action. The money-lender himself is not protected
in any way. Whenbe makes a loan he knows well that he is dealing with an
untrustworthy orincompetent man; for if the man were trustworthy he would
easily obtaincredit from the Gild of Bankers. Money lent by a money-lender,
therefore, isnot recoverable by any legal process.
It may be said that the fee charged by the money-lender is usury and thatusury therefore exists in Hopousia. My reply is that such borrowing is notpart of the economic structure of the society. Industry, trade, andgovernment are not financed in that way. Money-lending of the kind I havedescribed only exists because an alteration in economic structure does notcancel the existence of crooked fools. According to our economic system noman or group of men can borrow money unless they pay for the use of it;according to the Hopousian system no man or group of men pays for theuse of money unless his fellow-citizens are convinced he cannot be trusted:with money. Among us usury is compulsory and must be paid; in Hopousia`it is never paid by any person or persons that can be trusted. Among us thelaw protects the usurer; usury is the first charge on industry, trade, andtaxes. In Hopousia usury is not a recognised charge at all; but niether in'Hopousia nor anywhere else can crooked fools be prevented from cominginto existence. So in Hopousia such men are permitted to borrow money, ifthey can, from their fellow-citizens, and, if they wish, to pay usury Suchmonies, however,.not being recoverable by any legal process, the ''onlyredress a money-lender has against an absconding client is the exertion 'ofsocial pressure. Even then he has to be careful not to use backmail.
To receive credit, of course, a man must do more than provq himself _' s~trusty. He must also convince the Gild of Bankers who in such cases are -advised by the Gild of Accountants,`that he can repay the agreed amount of`money at the agreed times. But that aspect of the matter has already beendiscussed and does not come within the scope of this note.
It should be noted here that a state of affairs which the Christians called"just" when Christendom existed exists in Hopousia.
Producers and Distibutors.
We must imagine a society consisting of a varying number of economic groups. Some of these groups produce commodities, others perform economic services.